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Como se suelda mediante el arco voltaico

1. Tipos y propiedades de los electrodos

Los electrodos empleados en la soldadura de arco son alambres de diámetro proporcionado al tamaño de las piezas por soldar, y a la intensidad de la corriente.

Pueden ser de alambre desnudo; pero, en general, son de acero especial o de otro metal, con una protección llamada revestimiento, y se pueden dividir en dos clases principales: electrodos férreos, y electrodos no férreos.

Para manipular los electrodos, se protegerán las manos con guantes de cuero. Además, el reducto de la soldadura eléctrica debe ser protegido con mamparas o cortinas espesas, para no molestar a los demás alumnos u operarios del taller.

Las casas productoras de electrodos fabrican tipos adecuados a los diversos trabajos, y a las distintas clases de metales que han de soldarse.

Algunos son de uso ordinario, ligeramente revestidos, y muy económicos.

Otros se destinan a trabajos especiales, como la soldadura vertical y sobre cabezas de alta resistencia; para efectuar arreglos y rellenos, en piezas que luego se trabajarán con diversas herramientas; para soldar aceros inoxidables, aluminio, bronce, cobre, etcétera.

Cada clase de tiene un color distinto y un rótulo que lo distingue, y siempre viene acompañado de un folleto explicativo de sus propiedades y características, como diámetro y resistencia del electrodo, y amperaje o voltaje de la corriente, según el espesor de la pieza que va de soldarse.

El revestimiento en los electrodos tiene por fin evitar oxidaciones en la soldadura, pues el hierro líquido, en contacto con el aire, se combina químicamente con el oxígeno, y esto lo vuelve frágil y duro a la temperatura ordinaria.

El revestimiento, creando un gas inerte alrededor del metal derretido, y aislándolo por completo de la atmósfera, protege la soldadura de los agentes externos.

La vaina de protección está compuesta por sustancias reductoras, como sílice, manganeso, feldespato, espato flúor o fluorita, etcétera, que tienen la virtud de eliminar cualquier vestigio de óxido, además de depurar el metal depositado, produciendo una escoria ácida y de estructura vidriosa. (Esta escoria es muy frágil, y se rompe fácilmente con un martillo apropiado, cuando está solidificada.)

Para quitar estas escorias en las piezas soldadas, se deben usar siempre antiparras de vidrio blanco.

Cuanto más grueso es el revestimiento protector de los electrodos, mejores serán los resultados obtenidos.

Electrodos sin revestimiento, o desnudos, sólo se emplean cuando se suelda con corriente continua, y en casos muy especiales.

Siendo tan importante la función del revestimiento en los electrodos, éstos deberán conservarse en lugares secos, para evitar que el revestimiento se rompa, o tan sólo se deteriore.

Tabla 2 - Diámetro de los electrodos revestidos y consumo de corriente en la soldadura por arco .

2. Soldadura por arco voltaico

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Los equipos de soldadura deben ser puestos en movimiento gradualmente y según las mis precisas indicaciones de cada tipo.

La posición del operario es la indicada en la figura 37 bis, y debe resultar lo mas cómoda posible, para dejar expedita la mano derecha, con la cual se sujetara el portaelectrodo.

El codo debe mantenerse separado del cuerpo, y el brazo estará en posición casi horizontal, para tener libertad de movimiento del brazo, desde el hombro hasta la muñeca.

Aplicando la extremidad del electrodo en el lugar de la chapa donde se ha de iniciar la soldadura, se hace un rasguño previo como para encender un fósforo.

Figura 37 bis. - Posición del operador en la soldadura por arco.

  • -

Se forma así el arco, que se tratará de mantener encendido por el mayor tiempo posible.

Por unos segundos se mantiene el arco en el mismo punto, sin avanzar, y luego se inicia el movimiento oscilatorio y hacia delante, procurando depositar un cordón lo más derecho y. uniforme que sea posible.

A medida que el electrodo se va consumiendo, se aproxima la mano a la pieza, para poder conservar un arco de 2 a 4 mm de longitud.

Al principio se encuentra cierta dificultad, porque el electrodo se queda pegado. En tal caso, se despega dando un brusco impulso hacia abajo, y se repite luego el encendido, hasta adquirir la práctica necesaria.

Cuanto más corto se mantiene el arco, tanto más perfecta resultará la soldadura.

En todos los movimientos detallados anteriormente, el operario sostendrá la pantalla protectora ante los ojos, pues del arco emanan irradiaciones que provocan en el globo ocular una inflamación que se vuelve muy molesta al cabo de unas horas.

Siguiendo con el proceso, si el electrodo se queda pegado al metal base durante el proceso de inicio del arco, todo el trabajo para liberar el electrodo, mientras la corriente esté activa, deberá ser hecho con los ojos cubiertos.

El operario protegerá sus manos con guantes de cuero limpios y en buen estado.

Finalmente, el reducto de la soldadura eléctrica debe permanecer aislado con mamparas o con cortinas espesas, para no molestar a los demás alumnos u operarios del taller.

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