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Principios de Hidráulica

Hidráulica : Descripción funcional de las bombas hidráulicas.

Una comprensión de la es necesaria antes de que los principios básicos de los diversos tipos de bombas puedan ser entendidos. La hidráulica es la rama de la física que se ocupa de las propiedades mecánicas del agua y otros líquidos, y con la aplicación de estas propiedades en la ingeniería.

Mientras la hidráulica entró en prominencia en el último medio siglo, no es una ciencia nueva. Blaise Pascal, un científico francés en el siglo XVII, desarrolló la ley fundamental de la ciencia de la hidráulica.

Pero la incapacidad para producir materiales de sellado satisfactorios, acabados mecanizados, y piezas mecanizadas limitó el crecimiento de la hidráulica antes de la primera parte del siglo XX.

Principios básicos

Como se explica en otras páginas, el agua es una sustancia verdaderamente notable. En su máxima densidad (39,1 ºF), el agua se expande cuando se aplica calor. También se expande ligeramente cuando la temperatura disminuye desde ese punto. Bajo la influencia de la temperatura y la presión, el agua puede existir como un sólido (hielo), un líquido (agua), y un gas (vapor).

La presión ejercida por un líquido sobre una superficie es proporcional al área de la superficie. La figura 1 muestra el principio hidráulico. Dos cilindros de diferentes diámetros están unidos por un tubo y se llenan de agua. Si el área M del pistón más grande, por ejemplo, es 30 veces el área de la superficie S de pistón más pequeño, y un peso de 2 libras es colocado en el pistón más pequeño, la presión se transmite al agua y al pistón más grande. Esa presión es igual a 2 libras por cada porción de la superficie del pistón más grande, que es igual en área a la suma del área de la superficie del pistón más pequeño. El pistón más grande está expuesto a una presión hacia arriba igual a 30 veces la del pistón más pequeño, o sea 60 libras. Además, si un peso 60-libras se coloca en el pistón mayor, los dos pistones permanecen en equilibrio. Este equilibrio es destruido en caso de que un mayor o un menor peso sea aplicado.

Una pequeña cantidad de agua logra equilibrar un peso mucho mayor. Como se muestra en la Figura 2, una locomotora que pesa 101.790 libras puede ser equilibrada en un elevador hidráulico contra una cantidad menor de agua, suponiendo que no hay fugas ni fricción, y que el tubo vertical que conduce al cilindro de émbolo sea excesivamente pequeño en diámetro. Por ejemplo, si el área del émbolo requiere 100 psi de presión en el émbolo para equilibrar la locomotora 101.790 libras, la carga es equilibrada cuando el tubo sea llenado de agua hasta una altura de 231 pies (100 x 2,31).

Figura 1. El principio hidráulico de que la presión ejercida por un líquido sobre una superficie es proporcional al área de la superficie.

Figura 2 El principio de que una menor cantidad de agua puede ser usada para equilibrar un peso mucho mayor.

La presión en cualquier parte de un fluido que tiene una densidad uniforme es proporcional a su profundidad por debajo de la superficie (véase la figura 3). Como se ilustra en la Figura 4, una pesa de 1 libra colocada sobre una escala, totaliza 11 libras, lo que da un peso total o  presión de 11 psi si se ubica sobre una pulgada cuadrada de superficie. Del mismo modo, una columna de agua de 1 pulgada cuadrada de sección transversal y 2,31 pies de altura pesa 1 libra (vea la Figura 4). Un manómetro colocado en la parte inferior de la columna  que sea de 4,62 pies (2,31 x 2), de altura indica una presión de 2 psi. Por lo tanto, la presión de agua a cualquier profundidad es igual a:

 

Figura 3. El principio de que la presión en cualquier porción de un líquido que tenga densidad uniforme es proporcional a su profundidad por debajo de la superficie.

Figura 4. El principio de que la presión de agua en cualquier punto por debajo la superficie es proporcional a la profundidad del punto debajo de la superficie. Se ilustra la presión en psi (izquierda), y se muestra la relación entre la presión del agua en cualquier punto por debajo de la superficie y la profundidad en pies (derecha).

Figura 5. Los fluidos suben hasta el mismo nivel en cada brazo de un tubo en U cuando la temperatura del líquido es la misma en cada brazo (izquierda), y se elevan a niveles diferentes cuando la temperatura es diferente en cada brazo (derecha).

Como se muestra en la Figura 5, los fluidos se elevan hasta el mismo nivel en cada brazo de un tubo en U cuando la temperatura del líquido es la misma en cada brazo. Sin embargo, los fluidos se elevan a niveles diferentes cuando la temperatura es diferente en cada brazo (derecha).

Las consideraciones principales en hidráulica son altura de carga y la elevación. La altura de carga es la profundidad del agua en un recipiente, tubería o conducto, que es una medida de la presión en cualquier punto debajo de la superficie. El término altura de carga (head en Inglés) indica la diferencia en el nivel de agua entre dos puntos. Por lo general se expresa en pies. Los dos tipos de alturas de carga son carga estática y carga dinámica (véase la Figura 6).

En la elevación, o altura de alzamiento, es la altura a la que la presión atmosférica fuerza o eleva al agua por encima de la elevación de su fuente de suministro. Con respecto a la operación de la bomba, la altura, medida desde la elevación de la fuente de suministro hasta el punto central de la abertura de entrada de la bomba se denomina elevación (véase la Figura 7 y Figura 8). Los dos tipos de elevación son elevación estática y elevación dinámica.

Figura 6. Altura de carga dinámica y estática.

Figura 7. Puntos correctos de medición de altura de carga y elevación.

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4800 GPH Danner HY Drive Pump for Water Falls and Streams
 

4800 GPH Danner HY Drive Pump for Water Falls and Streams

$479.99  $333.64

Features: -Pump for waterfalls and streams-4800 gallons per hour pump-Submersible/inline pump for water gardens and ponds-Unique, high capacity pump designed specifically for use in larger pond installations-Combines the benefits of magnetic and di. [Read more]

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427 GPM Water Pump
 

427 GPM Water Pump

$644.61  $462.00

Features: -Water pump-4" Intake and Outlet with back flow check valve-Durable 9 Horse Power Engine (EPA and CARB Approved)-427 Gallons per minute-Pump overhead lift-2.4 Hour run time per tank-Construction Material: stainless steel-Product Type:. [Read more]

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100 GPH PT320 Powerjet Fountain Pump Kit
 

100 GPH PT320 Powerjet Fountain Pump Kit

$79.99  $76.95

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2" Trash Pump Float Switch: Float Switch, Voltage: 110 Volts
 

2" Trash Pump Float Switch: Float Switch, Voltage: 110 Volts

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This durable trash pump is powerful enough to get the job done and compact enough to use in almost any setting whether it be at home, in the office, or at a construction site. With reliable and innovative materials this water pump from Tsurumi is sure. [Read more]

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106 GPM Honda Engine Driven High Pressure Pump
 

106 GPM Honda Engine Driven High Pressure Pump

$1,064.00  $904.00

This Tsurumi pump is specifically made for high pressure output most fully utilized for irrigation, spraying, or sprinkling. Capable of multiple discharge lines combined with power and durability this water pump is unique yet affordable. Features: -Hea. [Read more]

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60 GPM Vertical Float Switch Thermoplastic Sump Pump with Epoxy Steel Motor Case
 

60 GPM Vertical Float Switch Thermoplastic Sump Pump with Epoxy Steel Motor Case

$135.00  $111.09

Features: -Reinforced thermoplastic submersible sump pump-Vertical float switch for automatic operation-Top suction design filters debris and prevents clogging-Designed for easy installation without any plumbing changes-Float guard protects switch. [Read more]

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208 GPM 2" Trash/Water Pump with 5.5 HP Engine
 

208 GPM 2" Trash/Water Pump with 5.5 HP Engine

$299.00  $246.87

This trash/water pump is capable of de-watering up to 9,000 gallons per hour. Dependable and quiet, the TWPUMP can be easily transported. weighing only 62 lbs, this is a great product for the price. This trash/water pump can bail you out when you nee. [Read more]

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65 GPM Vertical Float Switch Thermoplastic Sump Pump with Epoxy Steel Motor Case
 

65 GPM Vertical Float Switch Thermoplastic Sump Pump with Epoxy Steel Motor Case

$163.33  $133.92

Features: -Reinforced thermoplastic submersible sump pump-Vertical float switch for automatic operation-Top suction design filters debris and prevents clogging-Designed for easy installation without any plumbing changes-Float guard protects switch. [Read more]

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42 GPM Water Transfer Pump
 

42 GPM Water Transfer Pump

$222.00  $221.00

Features: -Water transfer pump-42 GPM-Built to move large volumes of water-Use these pumps to drain a pool or empty a flooded basement in no time-Product Type: Transfer Pump-Distressed: No-Material: Aluminum -Material Details: -Material Casing:. [Read more]

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137 GPM Honda Engine Driven Centrifugal Pump with Low Oil Sensor
 

137 GPM Honda Engine Driven Centrifugal Pump with Low Oil Sensor

$743.00  $632.00

Combining the power of a Honda engine with the durability of Tsurumi parts, this water pump is both reliable and affordable.A heavy duty water pump at a light weight, it utilizes high quality materials to provide a toughness allowing for increased ver. [Read more]

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1083 GMP Deutz F2L2011 Trash Pump
 

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$17,628.19  $16,415.78

Features: -1083 GMP Deutz F2L2011 Trash Pump-Multiquip has been manufacturing top quality dewatering pumps for two decades-Is a solid performer for larger dewatering projects-This is the skid-mount version located in the skid-Low oil shutdown-Not. [Read more]

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2550GPH Skimmer Pump 138" Shut Off
 

2550GPH Skimmer Pump 138" Shut Off

$300.99  $250.73

The Proline Skimmer pump with Hy-Drive technology is a continuous duty pump designed for use inside a pond skimmer to move large volumes of water silently and efficiently through filtration systems, a waterfall, stream or fountain. It's compact size a. [Read more]

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GPH 2300 Waterfall Pump
 

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Hydraulic Shoring Pump with Gas
 

Hydraulic Shoring Pump with Gas

$5,345.72  $3,182.19

Lightweight and easy to maneuver, this gas powered hydraulic shoring pressure pump is capable of pressures up to 2,000 PSI, and includes a bypass relief. Features: -Gas powered hydraulic shoring pump-Compact vertical design-Made in the USA-Product. [Read more]

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1 HP Semi-Vortex Submerisble Trash Pump with Agitator and Float Switch
 

1 HP Semi-Vortex Submerisble Trash Pump with Agitator and Float Switch

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A slightly larger and more powerful version of the HS model, this durable trash pump is powerful enough to get the job done and compact enough to use in almost any setting whether it be at home, in the office, or at a construction site. Combining both. [Read more]

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1 HP Cast-Iron Lawn Sprinkling Pump
 

1 HP Cast-Iron Lawn Sprinkling Pump

$320.84  $293.70

Features: -Cast-iron lawn sprinkling pump-Material: Durable Cast-iron-Operates an underground sprinkling system using a high volume of water at low pressure-Pumps up to 45.8 GPM at 5 feet (30 PSI)-Single-phase-Product Type: Fountain Pump-Material. [Read more]

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65 GPH Power Head TT Pump
 

65 GPH Power Head TT Pump

$42.90  $26.10

The Power Head pumps feature flow control, an oil free magnetic design, are epoxy protected and have ceramic impeller shafts for long life. These reliable and quiet submersible water pumps will give you a cost-saving, energy-efficient operation. Featu. [Read more]

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245 GPM Honda GX - 160 Centrifugal Pump
 

245 GPM Honda GX - 160 Centrifugal Pump

$1,932.00  $835.00

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1/12 HP 115V 1-Speed Cast Iron Circulator Pump
 

1/12 HP 115V 1-Speed Cast Iron Circulator Pump

$465.00  $279.64

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1 HP Portable Stainless Steel Lawn Sprinkling Pump
 

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500 GPH Recirculating Water and Air Pump
 

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200 GPH Statuary Pump
 

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20000 PSI Pneumatic Hydrostatic Test Pump
 

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350 GPH Danner Pondmaster Pump with 18' Cord
 

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1.5 HP Cast-Iron Lawn Sprinkling Pump
 

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1/6 HP Oil-Free Thermoplastic Submersible Utility Pump
 

1/6 HP Oil-Free Thermoplastic Submersible Utility Pump

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1500 GPH Max Flo 5000 Waterfall Pump
 

1500 GPH Max Flo 5000 Waterfall Pump

$149.99  $98.00

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550 PSI Triple Diaphragm Hydrostatic Test Water Pump with 5.5 HP Honda Engine
 

550 PSI Triple Diaphragm Hydrostatic Test Water Pump with 5.5 HP Honda Engine

$4,875.50  $2,661.85

This pump is recognized as the most saught-after large volume hydrostatic test pump on the market. Features: -Water pump-Inlet hose with stainless steel mesh filter-Made in the USA-Flow Rate: 11 GPM-Maximum Pressure: 550 PSI-Product Type: Test Pu. [Read more]

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6/10 HP Manual Operation Cast-Iron Heavy Duty Sewage Pump
 

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48" Rigid Liner Kit with 17.5 GPM Pump and Fittings for 2 Outlets
 

48" Rigid Liner Kit with 17.5 GPM Pump and Fittings for 2 Outlets

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For use with the Adirondack Bubbling Rock Feature (sold separately). Features: -Kit includes a rigid liner basin, a 17.5 GPM pump, a hose, a flow valve, and the fittings needed for installation for 2 outlets-Product Type: Fountain Pump-Distressed: N. [Read more]

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1.5 GPM Low Volume High Pressure Electric Hydrostatic Test Pump
 

1.5 GPM Low Volume High Pressure Electric Hydrostatic Test Pump

$3,048.84  $1,728.54

This electric pump is designed for testing sprinkler systems, irrigation lines, pressure vessels, plant process piping, and small diameter water lines. It features a triplex ceramic plunger with oil bath for long life with minimal maintenance. Hydrosta. [Read more]

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190 GPM Honda Engine Driven Trash Pump with Low Oil Sensor
 

190 GPM Honda Engine Driven Trash Pump with Low Oil Sensor

$1,447.00  $1,230.00

This Honda driven trash pump provides both the power and durability necessary to handle almost any situation. With strong and innovative design and materials this water pump provides a reliable solution to your excess liquids. Both lighweight as well a. [Read more]

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25 GPM Submersible Pump
 

25 GPM Submersible Pump

$470.00  $456.98

Features: -The built-in thermal protector turns off the power supply in case of overload, therefore protecting the motor-Product Type: Utility Pump-Finish: Black-Distressed: No-Material Casing: Aluminum -Material Casing Details: -Number of Items. [Read more]

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Tsurumi Centrifugal Pump with Low Oil Sensor
 

Tsurumi Centrifugal Pump with Low Oil Sensor

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TE-25HA is ideal for general dewatering on small applications. Whether used to irrigate or perform all purpose cleaning, you'll be impressed by the easy starting and quiet running features. Constructed for maximum durability, our dewatering pumps are. [Read more]

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3 GPM Electric Firehose Test Pump
 

3 GPM Electric Firehose Test Pump

$3,911.63  $2,513.90

This pump is designed to safely test fire hose up to 6 inches in diameter. Four independently controlled outlets and a large 2 & 1/2" swivel inlet help to quickly fill and bleed lines for testing. Meets testing standards as set forth in the NFPA (1962. [Read more]

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1/4 HP Utility Pump
 

1/4 HP Utility Pump

$161.35  $140.44

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65 GPH Magnetic-Drive Mini Pump
 

65 GPH Magnetic-Drive Mini Pump

$28.99  $20.59

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3.5 GPM Firehose Test Pump with Honda Engine
 

3.5 GPM Firehose Test Pump with Honda Engine

$6,032.56  $3,699.99

This pump is designed to safely test fire hose up to 6 inches in diameter. Four independently controlled outlets and a large 2 & 1/2" swivel inlet help to quickly fill and bleed lines for testing. Meets testing standards as set forth in the NFPA (1962. [Read more]

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1500 PSI Manual Hydrostatic Hand Test Pump
 

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$249.11

Designed for testing small diameter water lines, in areas such as landscaping, plumbing, and residential. Unique dual check-valve system reduces water bleed-back and user fatigue. Features: -Shut off valve, and rubber grip handle-Less user fatigue, s. [Read more]

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1000 GPH Battery Backup Sump Pump System
 

1000 GPH Battery Backup Sump Pump System

$199.00  $138.00

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360 GPM Honda Engine Driven Trash Pump with Low Oil Sensor
 

360 GPM Honda Engine Driven Trash Pump with Low Oil Sensor

$1,854.00  $1,699.89

Whether it be at a construction site or in a commercial setting this water pump provides both the power and durability to get the job done. This Tsurumi pump combines both reliability thanks to its quality parts and performance with the help of the Hon. [Read more]

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120V Electric Water Pump for MK-370 and MK-470
 

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$57.14

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360 GPM Robin Engine Driven Trash Pump with Low Oil Sensor
 

360 GPM Robin Engine Driven Trash Pump with Low Oil Sensor

$1,695.00  $1,568.25

Combining both power and sleek design, this Robin engine propelled water pump is both durable and reliable. This pump provides a solution to flooding whether it be at a construction site, or in a commercial setting. Features: -Heavy-duty Robin gas engi. [Read more]

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356 GPM Centrifugal Pump
 

356 GPM Centrifugal Pump

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A simple, compact, and lightweight pump for a wide array of applications. Features: -Easy start-Very low noise-Product Type: Utility Pump-Finish: Yellow and black-Distressed: No-Material Casing: Aluminum -Material Casing Details: -Material Shaf. [Read more]

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308.20 GPM Diesel 4" Trash Water Pump with Recoil Start
 

308.20 GPM Diesel 4" Trash Water Pump with Recoil Start

$1,476.67  $1,364.53

Features: -Water pump-Excellent fuel consumption-Recoil start-Air cooled-4 Cycle engine-Wheel kits-Product Type: Effluent or Sewage Pump-Finish: Black; Red-Distressed: No-Powder Coated Finish: No-Gloss Finish: No-Material: Aluminum -Material. [Read more]

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Electric Water Pump
 

Electric Water Pump

$173.00  $164.47

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1/3 HP Tether Float Switch Thermoplastic Submersible Effluent Pump
 

1/3 HP Tether Float Switch Thermoplastic Submersible Effluent Pump

$199.00  $174.99

Features: -Reinforced thermoplastic submersible effluent pump-Piggy-back tether float switch for automatic or manual operation-Capable of handling up to 0.75-inch solids-Designed for easy installation without any plumbing changes-Easy carry handle. [Read more]

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1 HP, 3-Wire Stainless Steel Deep Well Submersible Pump
 

1 HP, 3-Wire Stainless Steel Deep Well Submersible Pump

$533.33  $430.43

Features: -Deep well submersible pump-Material: Stainless steel-For wells 20 to 300 feet in depth-High efficiency, hermetically sealed motor for long life-Motor enclosure, pump shell and fasteners-Requires control box (not included)-Engine HP: 1. [Read more]

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137 GPM Honda Engine Driven Centrifugal Pump with Low Oil Sensor
 

137 GPM Honda Engine Driven Centrifugal Pump with Low Oil Sensor

$613.00  $521.00

Combining the power of a Honda engine and the durability that has come to personify Tsurumi pumps, this water pump is ideal for any situation. Both lightweight and powerful it can be used in almost environment and provides an affordable and efficient. [Read more]

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1 HP Semi-Vortex Submerisble Trash Pump with Agitator
 

1 HP Semi-Vortex Submerisble Trash Pump with Agitator

$545.00  $480.39

This durable trash pump is powerful enough to get the job done and compact enough to use in almost any setting whether it be at home, in the office, or at a construction site. Combining both reliable materials as well as innovative technology this Tsu. [Read more]

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2.5 GPM Pneumatic Hydrostatic Test Pump
 

2.5 GPM Pneumatic Hydrostatic Test Pump

$4,320.00  $3,175.42

Features: -2.5 GPM up to 3500 PSI-Made in the USA-Product Type: Test Pump-Finish: Red-Distressed: No-Powder Coated Finish: Yes-Number of Items Included: 1-Pieces Included: -Control Box Required: No -Control Box Included: -Hose Included: Yes. [Read more]

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1/4 HP Mark I Automatic Sump Pump
 

1/4 HP Mark I Automatic Sump Pump

$92.75  $83.74

Features: -Sump pump-Thermoplastic body resists corrosion, stress, and heat-Pumps up to 1260 gallons per hour-Automatic thermal overload protection-1.25" MPT discharge with threaded coupling-Anti-airlock valve-Tethered float switch, non-mercury, . [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Simer

1/2 HP Tether Float Switch Sewage Pump
 

1/2 HP Tether Float Switch Sewage Pump

$168.88  $139.99

Features: -Cast-iron submersible sewage pump-Piggy-back tether float switch for automatic or manual operation-Capable of handling up to 2-inch solids-Designed for easy installation without any plumbing changes-Easy carry ring for portability-Lower. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Wayne

48 GPM Tether Float Switch Thermoplastic Sump Pump
 

48 GPM Tether Float Switch Thermoplastic Sump Pump

$145.01  $142.73

Features: -Reinforced thermoplastic submersible sump pump-Piggy-back tether float switch for automatic or manual operation-Top suction design filters debris and prevents clogging-Designed for easy installation without any plumbing changes-Easy carr. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Wayne

500 PSI Hydrostatic Test Pump with Three Phase
 

500 PSI Hydrostatic Test Pump with Three Phase

$5,504.55  $3,208.27

This hydrostatic test pump is designed for testing small diameter water lines. It includes a Triplex plunger, and is powered by a 2.0 HP electric motor. Features: -Three phase motor-Automatic pressure regulator with inlet bypass-Made in the USA-Rug. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Rice Hydro

Gulp Syringe Ultra Water Removal Siphon Pump
 

Gulp Syringe Ultra Water Removal Siphon Pump

$29.99  $22.49

Manual siphon pump for tight spaces. Works like a medical syringe. Draws water in with up stroke and pushes it out with down stroke. Can remove a gallon of water in about 5 strokes. Ideal for getting water out of sink traps or similar tight spaces. Gr. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: ConservCo

5.5 HP Honda Gasoline-Powered Transfer Utility Pump
 

5.5 HP Honda Gasoline-Powered Transfer Utility Pump

$995.00  $789.99

Features: -Aluminum and cast-iron water transfer utility pump-4-Cycle high pressure pump passes 0.625-inch solids-Easy connection to standard discharge hose-Heavy-duty water transfer pump you can take anywhere-Heavy-duty aluminum roll cage and pump. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Wayne

3/4 HP Cast-Iron Lawn Sprinkling Pump
 

3/4 HP Cast-Iron Lawn Sprinkling Pump

$287.49  $239.00

Features: -Cast-iron lawn sprinkling pump-Material: Durable Cast-iron-Operates an underground sprinkling system using a high volume of water at low pressure-Engine HP: 3/4-Pumps up to 38.6 GPM at 5 feet (30 PSI)-Single-phase-Product Type: Fountai. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Wayne

264 GPM Robin Engine Driven Centrifugal Pump with Low Oil Sensor
 

264 GPM Robin Engine Driven Centrifugal Pump with Low Oil Sensor

$616.00  $524.00

Robin engine driven water pump that provides power and reliability for any excess water situation. With durable and reliable materials, allows for wear and tear with minimum maintenance. This pump is both high powered and high quality serving as an af. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Tsurumi

Gulp UltraMax Water Removal Siphon Pump
 

Gulp UltraMax Water Removal Siphon Pump

$34.99  $26.24

Features: -Hand pump-Made from non-corrosion materials-Can remove 8 gallons of water per minute (about 5 strokes)-Self-priming-Contour grip handle-Perfect for boaters-Gulp collection-Collection: Gulp-Product Type: Hand Pump-Distressed: No-Swi. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: ConservCo

400GPH Mag Drive Pump with 2 Fountain Nozzles
 

400GPH Mag Drive Pump with 2 Fountain Nozzles

$119.99  $82.66

Mat drive motors are super quiet and very energy efficient. These pumps use epoxy filled motors so there"s no oil and your pump is fish safe! Features: -Material: poly-Can be used under water or externally as an inline pump-A foam pre filter is inc. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Easy Pro

5,600 GPH VersiFlo Horizontal Pump
 

5,600 GPH VersiFlo Horizontal Pump

$3,705.07

Matala VersiFlow Pumps are a high quality, reliable, industrial-grade, submersible waterfall pump. Their versatile design makes them an excellent choice for heavy and continuous flow duty in water garden skimmers and pump vaults. The pump can be laid. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Matala Usa

3/4 HP, 2-Wire Stainless Steel Deep Well Submersible Pump
 

3/4 HP, 2-Wire Stainless Steel Deep Well Submersible Pump

$488.33  $396.00

Features: -Deep well submersible pump-Material: Stainless steel-For wells 20 to 175 feet in depth-High efficiency, hermetically sealed motor for long life-Motor enclosure, pump shell and fasteners-Engine HP: 3/4-Single-phase-Submersible design f. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Wayne

76.67 GPM Submersible Pump
 

76.67 GPM Submersible Pump

$511.00  $508.67

Features: -The built-in thermal protector turns off the power supply in case of overload, therefore protecting the motor-Product Type: Utility Pump-Distressed: No-Material Casing: Aluminum -Material Casing Details: -Number of Items Included: 1-Pi. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Subaru

48" Rigid Liner Kit with 17.5 GPM Pump and Fittings for 1 Outlet
 

48" Rigid Liner Kit with 17.5 GPM Pump and Fittings for 1 Outlet

$855.46  $818.59

For use with the 30-inch or 40-inch Basalt or the Babbling Brook Bubbling Rock Feature (sold separately). Features: -Kit includes a rigid liner basin, a 17.5 GPM pump, a hose, a flow valve, and the fittings needed for installation for 1 outlet-Produc. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Hargrove Outdoor Products

4500 GPH Max Flo 16000 Waterfall Pump
 

4500 GPH Max Flo 16000 Waterfall Pump

$259.99  $146.00

Features: -Includes filter grid to protect motor from large debris-Waterfall pump-4500 GPH-Can be positioned vertically or horizontally for various pond configurations-Energy efficient magnet-driven-UL approved-Maintenance free pumps-Barbed fitt. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: algreen

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Figura 8. Medición correcta de la elevación estática con respecto a la operación de la bomba. La elevación estática se mide desde la superficie del suministro de agua al punto central de la abertura de entrada de la bomba.

Hidrostática

La rama de la hidráulica que trata con la presión y el equilibrio del agua (en reposo) y otros líquidos es conocida como hidrostática. El agua es el líquido considerado con mas frecuencia en el estudio de los principios básicos de la hidráulica, pero otros líquidos están también incluidos.

Altura de carga estática

La altura por encima de un punto dado de una columna o cuerpo de agua en reposo (el peso de del agua que causa la presión) se denomina altura de carga estática o presión estática (static head en Inglés).

Con respecto a la operación de la bomba, la altura de carga se mide desde el punto central de la conexión de salida de la bomba (vea la Figura 7).

En la mayoría de los cálculos, es una práctica común estimar la presión por pie de la altura de carga en 0,5 psi. El valor correcto para el cálculo de la presión de agua por pie de altura de carga estática es 0,43302 psi. Este valor es preciso para una temperatura del agua a 62 ºF.

Elevación estática

La altura a la que la presión atmosférica hace que una columna de agua se eleve por encima de la fuente de suministro para restaurar el equilibrio se denomina elevación estática (vea la Figura 8). El peso de la columna de agua (1 pulgada cuadrada de área de sección transversal) requerida para restaurar el equilibrio es igual a la presión ejercida por la atmósfera (psi).

La presión de la atmósfera puede estar disponible para levantar agua desde la fuente de suministro a una bomba de elevada mediante la eliminación del aire de la entrada de la bomba (véase la figura 9). En el diagrama de la izquierda, el tubo de entrada (antes de la conexión con la bomba) presiona hacia abajo sobre la superficie del agua con la misma presión (psi) tanto por dentro como fuera de la cañería, debido a que el tubo está abierto en la parte superior.

Figura 9.  Método para hacer que la presión atmosférica esté disponible para la elevación de agua desde la fuente hasta una bomba de elevada.

Si el extremo de la tubería está conectado a una bomba que extrae el aire de la tubería para crear un vacío parcial, el agua sube a una altura A (véase figura 9) que está determinada por la presión atmosférica disponible.

Cuando el barómetro indica 30 pulgadas (76,20 centímetros) de mercurio a nivel del mar, la presión atmosférica a nivel del mar es de 14,74 psi, que es la presión atmosférica  que puede mantener o equilibrar una columna de 34,042 pies (1.037,60 centímetros) de agua, si la columna está totalmente desprovista de aire y la temperatura del agua es de 62 ºF (16,67 ºC). Por lo tanto, la presión atmosférica eleva el agua a una altura que establece el equilibrio entre el peso del agua y la presión de la atmósfera.

Cuando la temperatura del agua esta más caliente que 62 ºF (16,67 ºC), la altura a la que el agua puede ser levantada disminuye debido a la mayor presión de vapor. Una bomba de alimentación de caldera tomando agua a 153 ºF (67,22 ºC), por ejemplo, no puede producir un vacío superior a 21,78 pulgadas  (55,32 centímetros), porque el agua comienza a hervir en ese punto y llena la cámara de la bomba con vapor. Por lo tanto, la elevación teórica es:

El resultado es aproximado ya que no se hace corrección para la columna de agua de 34 pies (10,36 metros) a 62 ºF  (16,67 ºC). En 153 ºF (67,22 ºC), por supuesto, la longitud de la columna se incrementa ligeramente.

Figura 10. La elevación máxima de agua a la temperatura estándar (62 ◦ F) cuando la presión barométrica es de 30 pulgadas (izquierda) y 24 pulgadas (derecha).

La altura máxima a la que el agua a temperatura estándar (62 ºF  ó 16,67 ºC) puede ser levantada se determina por la presión barométrica. Como se muestra en la figura 10, el agua se eleva a una altura de 34,1 pies  (1.039,37 centímetros) cuando la presión barométrica es de 30 pulgadas  (76,20 centímetros), y se eleva a 27,28 pies (831,49 centímetros) cuando la presión barométrica es de 24 pulgadas (60,96 centímetros) (utilizando 0,49116 psi  y 2,30947 pies ó 70,39 centímetros a la cabeza del agua para cada psi).

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