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Principios de Hidráulica

Hidráulica : Descripción funcional de las bombas hidráulicas.

Una comprensión de la es necesaria antes de que los principios básicos de los diversos tipos de bombas puedan ser entendidos. La hidráulica es la rama de la física que se ocupa de las propiedades mecánicas del agua y otros líquidos, y con la aplicación de estas propiedades en la ingeniería.

Mientras la hidráulica entró en prominencia en el último medio siglo, no es una ciencia nueva. Blaise Pascal, un científico francés en el siglo XVII, desarrolló la ley fundamental de la ciencia de la hidráulica.

Pero la incapacidad para producir materiales de sellado satisfactorios, acabados mecanizados, y piezas mecanizadas limitó el crecimiento de la hidráulica antes de la primera parte del siglo XX.

Principios básicos

Como se explica en otras páginas, el agua es una sustancia verdaderamente notable. En su máxima densidad (39,1 ºF), el agua se expande cuando se aplica calor. También se expande ligeramente cuando la temperatura disminuye desde ese punto. Bajo la influencia de la temperatura y la presión, el agua puede existir como un sólido (hielo), un líquido (agua), y un gas (vapor).

La presión ejercida por un líquido sobre una superficie es proporcional al área de la superficie. La figura 1 muestra el principio hidráulico. Dos cilindros de diferentes diámetros están unidos por un tubo y se llenan de agua. Si el área M del pistón más grande, por ejemplo, es 30 veces el área de la superficie S de pistón más pequeño, y un peso de 2 libras es colocado en el pistón más pequeño, la presión se transmite al agua y al pistón más grande. Esa presión es igual a 2 libras por cada porción de la superficie del pistón más grande, que es igual en área a la suma del área de la superficie del pistón más pequeño. El pistón más grande está expuesto a una presión hacia arriba igual a 30 veces la del pistón más pequeño, o sea 60 libras. Además, si un peso 60-libras se coloca en el pistón mayor, los dos pistones permanecen en equilibrio. Este equilibrio es destruido en caso de que un mayor o un menor peso sea aplicado.

Una pequeña cantidad de agua logra equilibrar un peso mucho mayor. Como se muestra en la Figura 2, una locomotora que pesa 101.790 libras puede ser equilibrada en un elevador hidráulico contra una cantidad menor de agua, suponiendo que no hay fugas ni fricción, y que el tubo vertical que conduce al cilindro de émbolo sea excesivamente pequeño en diámetro. Por ejemplo, si el área del émbolo requiere 100 psi de presión en el émbolo para equilibrar la locomotora 101.790 libras, la carga es equilibrada cuando el tubo sea llenado de agua hasta una altura de 231 pies (100 x 2,31).

Figura 1. El principio hidráulico de que la presión ejercida por un líquido sobre una superficie es proporcional al área de la superficie.

Figura 2 El principio de que una menor cantidad de agua puede ser usada para equilibrar un peso mucho mayor.

La presión en cualquier parte de un fluido que tiene una densidad uniforme es proporcional a su profundidad por debajo de la superficie (véase la figura 3). Como se ilustra en la Figura 4, una pesa de 1 libra colocada sobre una escala, totaliza 11 libras, lo que da un peso total o  presión de 11 psi si se ubica sobre una pulgada cuadrada de superficie. Del mismo modo, una columna de agua de 1 pulgada cuadrada de sección transversal y 2,31 pies de altura pesa 1 libra (vea la Figura 4). Un manómetro colocado en la parte inferior de la columna  que sea de 4,62 pies (2,31 x 2), de altura indica una presión de 2 psi. Por lo tanto, la presión de agua a cualquier profundidad es igual a:

 

Figura 3. El principio de que la presión en cualquier porción de un líquido que tenga densidad uniforme es proporcional a su profundidad por debajo de la superficie.

Figura 4. El principio de que la presión de agua en cualquier punto por debajo la superficie es proporcional a la profundidad del punto debajo de la superficie. Se ilustra la presión en psi (izquierda), y se muestra la relación entre la presión del agua en cualquier punto por debajo de la superficie y la profundidad en pies (derecha).

Figura 5. Los fluidos suben hasta el mismo nivel en cada brazo de un tubo en U cuando la temperatura del líquido es la misma en cada brazo (izquierda), y se elevan a niveles diferentes cuando la temperatura es diferente en cada brazo (derecha).

Como se muestra en la Figura 5, los fluidos se elevan hasta el mismo nivel en cada brazo de un tubo en U cuando la temperatura del líquido es la misma en cada brazo. Sin embargo, los fluidos se elevan a niveles diferentes cuando la temperatura es diferente en cada brazo (derecha).

Las consideraciones principales en hidráulica son altura de carga y la elevación. La altura de carga es la profundidad del agua en un recipiente, tubería o conducto, que es una medida de la presión en cualquier punto debajo de la superficie. El término altura de carga (head en Inglés) indica la diferencia en el nivel de agua entre dos puntos. Por lo general se expresa en pies. Los dos tipos de alturas de carga son carga estática y carga dinámica (véase la Figura 6).

En la elevación, o altura de alzamiento, es la altura a la que la presión atmosférica fuerza o eleva al agua por encima de la elevación de su fuente de suministro. Con respecto a la operación de la bomba, la altura, medida desde la elevación de la fuente de suministro hasta el punto central de la abertura de entrada de la bomba se denomina elevación (véase la Figura 7 y Figura 8). Los dos tipos de elevación son elevación estática y elevación dinámica.

Figura 6. Altura de carga dinámica y estática.

Figura 7. Puntos correctos de medición de altura de carga y elevación.

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190 GPH Danner Statuary Pump Clamshell Pack
 

190 GPH Danner Statuary Pump Clamshell Pack

$64.99  $52.98

Features: -Includes an elbow for 0.38" or 0.5" I.D. tubing-Includes an 120" long cord-Statuary pump clamshell pack-190 gallons per hour pump-0.25" threaded outlet-Seven foot shut off, ceramic shaft-Grounded power cord-Made in the USA-Collection. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: E G Danner

1/3 HP Tether Float Switch Cast-Iron Sump Pump
 

1/3 HP Tether Float Switch Cast-Iron Sump Pump

$154.01  $127.49

Features: -Cast-iron submersible sump pump-Piggy-back tether float switch for automatic or manual operation-Top suction design filters debris and prevents clogging-Designed for easy installation without any plumbing changes-Epoxy-coated steel, high. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Wayne

427 GPM Water Pump
 

427 GPM Water Pump

$644.61  $462.00

Features: -Water pump-4" Intake and Outlet with back flow check valve-Durable 9 Horse Power Engine (EPA and CARB Approved)-427 Gallons per minute-Pump overhead lift-2.4 Hour run time per tank-Construction Material: stainless steel-Product Type:. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: DuroMax

1/6 HP Oil-Free Thermoplastic Submersible Utility Pump
 

1/6 HP Oil-Free Thermoplastic Submersible Utility Pump

$76.52  $62.22

Features: -Garden hose adapter included-Submersible thermoplastic utility pump-Corrosion-resistant reinforced thermoplastic housing, volute and impeller-Bottom suction design filters and removes water down to 0.38-inch of surface-Continuous-duty pu. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Wayne

3" Dewatering Pump
 

3" Dewatering Pump

$497.41  $477.54

Features: -Collection: Powermate-Distressed: No-Powder Coated Finish: No-Gloss Finish: No-Material: Other -Material Details: Steel-Impeller Materials: Cast iron -Impeller Materials Details: -Tank Size: 0.95-Control Box Required: No -Control Bo. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Powermate

245 GPM Honda GX - 160 Centrifugal Pump
 

245 GPM Honda GX - 160 Centrifugal Pump

$1,932.00  $835.00

Features: -245 GPM Honda GX - 160 Centrifugal Pump-This multipurpose pump excels no matter how much water needs to be moved-Solid performance in a lightweight package that can be handled by one person-Unique volute design for quick positive priming. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Multiquip

Hydraulic Shoring Pump with Pneumatic
 

Hydraulic Shoring Pump with Pneumatic

$6,151.81  $4,074.19

Lightweight and easy to maneuver, this gas powered hydraulic shoring pressure pump is capable of pressures up to 2,000 PSI, and includes a bypass relief. Features: -Gas powered hydraulic shoring pump-Compact vertical design-Bypass relief-Max PSI: 2. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Rice Hydro

City Water Powered Emergency Back Up Sump Pump
 

City Water Powered Emergency Back Up Sump Pump

$174.99  $109.91

Features: -Includes check valve-Back up sump pump-Powered by your city water-Does not require any electricity-Compact design- fits alongside primary sump pump-Plastic construction-Made in the USA-Product Type: Sump Pump-Distressed: No-Material. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Flotec

79 GPM Submersible Trash Pumps with Single Phase Motor
 

79 GPM Submersible Trash Pumps with Single Phase Motor

$830.00  $349.27

Features: -79 GPM Submersible Trash Pumps with Single Phase Motor-Best for removing water from confined areas-One of the most popular sizes, the ST2040T can be used in many applications where debris will be found in the water-Great for use in sumps. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Multiquip

308.20 GPM Diesel 4" Trash Water Pump with Recoil Start
 

308.20 GPM Diesel 4" Trash Water Pump with Recoil Start

$1,476.67  $1,311.67

Features: -Water pump-Excellent fuel consumption-Recoil start-Air cooled-4 Cycle engine-Wheel kits-Product Type: Effluent or Sewage Pump-Finish: Black; Red-Distressed: No-Powder Coated Finish: No-Gloss Finish: No-Material: Aluminum -Material. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Amico

3/4 HP Cast Iron Professional Series Sewage Pump
 

3/4 HP Cast Iron Professional Series Sewage Pump

$377.30  $312.00

Features: -Sewage pump-Energy efficient PSC motor for smoother, quieter operation-Rust proof impeller-Reliable, professional design-Superior performance-Rugged, cast iron construction for longer pump life-Made in the USA-Product Type: Effluent o. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Flotec

73 GPM Electric Submersible Clean Water Pump with Single-Phase Motors
 

73 GPM Electric Submersible Clean Water Pump with Single-Phase Motors

$810.00  $355.00

Features: -Electric Submersible Clean Water Pump with Single-Phase Motors-Multiquip's most popular model, renowned for it's durability, compact design and good performance-Can be used for a wide range of applications where portability and solid perfo. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Multiquip

4 GPM Electric Firehose Test Pump
 

4 GPM Electric Firehose Test Pump

$7,953.49  $4,989.99

This pump is designed to safely test fire hose up to 6 inches in diameter. Four independently controlled outlets and a large 2 & 1/2" swivel inlet help to quickly fill and bleed lines for testing. Meets testing standards as set forth in the NFPA (1962. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Rice Hydro

3 GPM Electric Firehose Test Pump
 

3 GPM Electric Firehose Test Pump

$3,911.63  $2,513.90

This pump is designed to safely test fire hose up to 6 inches in diameter. Four independently controlled outlets and a large 2 & 1/2" swivel inlet help to quickly fill and bleed lines for testing. Meets testing standards as set forth in the NFPA (1962. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Rice Hydro

1/3 HP Pedestal Sump Pump
 

1/3 HP Pedestal Sump Pump

$91.70  $77.98

Features: -Sump pump-Pumps 3600 gallons per hour-8' Grounded cord and 3 prong plug-Top screened inlet with 1.25" discharge-Non-clogging impeller-UL approved-Corrosion resistant plastic construction-Rugged cast iron construction-Heavy-duty, rugg. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Flotec

506 GPM Commercial Trash Pump
 

506 GPM Commercial Trash Pump

$1,767.96  $1,605.00

Features: -Trash pump-506 GPM-Quiet and reliable-Cast iron pump casing lined with stainless steel and long life silicon carbide mechanical seal resists corrosion, wear and heat-Product Type: Effluent or Sewage Pump-Distressed: No-Material: Cast i. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Be Pressure

1 HP Semi-Vortex Submerisble Trash Pump with Agitator and Float Switch
 

1 HP Semi-Vortex Submerisble Trash Pump with Agitator and Float Switch

$545.00  $480.37

A slightly larger and more powerful version of the HS model, this durable trash pump is powerful enough to get the job done and compact enough to use in almost any setting whether it be at home, in the office, or at a construction site. Combining both. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Tsurumi

360 GPM Robin Engine Driven Trash Pump with Low Oil Sensor
 

360 GPM Robin Engine Driven Trash Pump with Low Oil Sensor

$1,695.00  $1,567.60

Combining both power and sleek design, this Robin engine propelled water pump is both durable and reliable. This pump provides a solution to flooding whether it be at a construction site, or in a commercial setting. Features: -Heavy-duty Robin gas engi. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Tsurumi

400GPH Mag Drive Pump with 2 Fountain Nozzles
 

400GPH Mag Drive Pump with 2 Fountain Nozzles

$119.99  $82.66

Mat drive motors are super quiet and very energy efficient. These pumps use epoxy filled motors so there"s no oil and your pump is fish safe! Features: -Material: poly-Can be used under water or externally as an inline pump-A foam pre filter is inc. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Easy Pro

48 GPM Tether Float Switch Thermoplastic Sump Pump
 

48 GPM Tether Float Switch Thermoplastic Sump Pump

$145.01  $142.73

Features: -Reinforced thermoplastic submersible sump pump-Piggy-back tether float switch for automatic or manual operation-Top suction design filters debris and prevents clogging-Designed for easy installation without any plumbing changes-Easy carr. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Wayne

264 GPM Robin Engine Driven Centrifugal Pump with Low Oil Sensor
 

264 GPM Robin Engine Driven Centrifugal Pump with Low Oil Sensor

$616.00  $524.00

Robin engine driven water pump that provides power and reliability for any excess water situation. With durable and reliable materials, allows for wear and tear with minimum maintenance. This pump is both high powered and high quality serving as an af. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Tsurumi

198 GPM 2" Briggs & Stratton Trash Pro Water Pump
 

198 GPM 2" Briggs & Stratton Trash Pro Water Pump

$1,215.22  $1,007.00

Features: -Thrust balance impeller better handles pump loads for extended engine life-Engine: Briggs & Stratton-Series: Vanguard-Compact overhead valve design-Mechanical governor-Patented clamped impellers allows for optimum impeller shape and int. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Briggs & Stratton

2550GPH Skimmer Pump 138" Shut Off
 

2550GPH Skimmer Pump 138" Shut Off

$300.99  $250.73

The Proline Skimmer pump with Hy-Drive technology is a continuous duty pump designed for use inside a pond skimmer to move large volumes of water silently and efficiently through filtration systems, a waterfall, stream or fountain. It's compact size a. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Danner

Gas Pump Liquor Dispenser
 

Gas Pump Liquor Dispenser

$41.30  $26.46

Adorn your counter or bar top with the gas pump liquor dispenser by Godinger. Whether entertaining guests for a summer soiree or birthday celebration, this piece was designed with style and functionality in mind and will undoubtedly bring classic char. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Godinger Silver Art Co

95 GPM Submersible Trash Pumps with Single Phase Motor
 

95 GPM Submersible Trash Pumps with Single Phase Motor

$2,416.00  $1,125.00

Features: -95 GPM Submersible Trash Pumps with Single Phase Motor-Corrosion free stainless steel hardware-UL or CSA approved-Item # ST2010TCUL-Impeller Type: Cast-Ductile-Iron-Impeller Disc Size: 2"-Total Head: 45'-Water Capacity: 95 gpm-Max. . [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Multiquip

1083 GMP Deutz F2L2011 Trash Pump
 

1083 GMP Deutz F2L2011 Trash Pump

$17,628.19  $16,415.78

Features: -1083 GMP Deutz F2L2011 Trash Pump-Not included battery-Multiquip has been manufacturing top quality dewatering pumps for two decades-Is a solid performer for larger dewatering projects-This is the skid-mount version located in the skid. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Multiquip

6/10 HP Manual Operation Cast-Iron Heavy Duty Sewage Pump
 

6/10 HP Manual Operation Cast-Iron Heavy Duty Sewage Pump

$353.31  $287.00

Features: -Cast-iron submersible sewage pump-Manual operation-Capable of handling up to 2-inch solids-Designed for easy installation without any plumbing changes-Easy carry ring for portability-Lower ball bearings for long life and quiet operation. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Wayne

5.5 HP Honda Gasoline-Powered Transfer Utility Pump
 

5.5 HP Honda Gasoline-Powered Transfer Utility Pump

$995.00  $789.99

Features: -Aluminum and cast-iron water transfer utility pump-4-Cycle high pressure pump passes 0.625-inch solids-Easy connection to standard discharge hose-Heavy-duty water transfer pump you can take anywhere-Heavy-duty aluminum roll cage and pump. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Wayne

65 GPM Vertical Float Switch Thermoplastic Sump Pump with Epoxy Steel Motor Case
 

65 GPM Vertical Float Switch Thermoplastic Sump Pump with Epoxy Steel Motor Case

$163.33  $133.92

Features: -Reinforced thermoplastic submersible sump pump-Vertical float switch for automatic operation-Top suction design filters debris and prevents clogging-Designed for easy installation without any plumbing changes-Float guard protects switch. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Wayne

158 GPM Commercial Water Transfer Pump Engine: Powerease
 

158 GPM Commercial Water Transfer Pump Engine: Powerease

$549.00  $234.20

Features: -Water transfer pump-Recoil start and low oil alert-Built to move large volumes of water-Product Type: Transfer Pump-Distressed: No-Material: Aluminum -Material Details: -Material Casing: Aluminum -Material Casing Details: -Impeller. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Be Pressure

93 GPH Statuary Pump
 

93 GPH Statuary Pump

$28.73

Features: -Fountain pump-Magnetic drive-Variable flow control-For submersible use-Grounded plug-Product Type: Fountain Pump-Distressed: No-Portable: Yes. Dimensions: -Overall Height - Top to Bottom: 7.5-Overall Width - Side to Side: 4.25-Overal. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Danner

158 GPM Honda GX - 120 Centrifugal Pump
 

158 GPM Honda GX - 120 Centrifugal Pump

$1,312.00  $575.00

Features: -158 GPM Honda GX - 120 Centrifugal Pump-Designed to handle all types of clear water applications-Uses an overhead valve for peak performance while minimizing fuel consumption-Cast ductile iron impeller and volute for long-lasting performa. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Multiquip

48" Rigid Liner Kit with 17.5 GPM Pump and Fittings for 2 Outlets
 

48" Rigid Liner Kit with 17.5 GPM Pump and Fittings for 2 Outlets

$917.18  $847.26

For use with the Adirondack Bubbling Rock Feature (sold separately). Features: -Kit includes a rigid liner basin, a 17.5 GPM pump, a hose, a flow valve, and the fittings needed for installation for 2 outlets-Product Type: Fountain Pump-Distressed: N. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Hargrove Outdoor Products

1/12 HP 115V 1-Speed Cast Iron Circulator Pump
 

1/12 HP 115V 1-Speed Cast Iron Circulator Pump

$465.00  $279.64

Features: -Recirculator pump-Material: Cast iron-Single-speed, low energy consumption and maintenance-free-Designed for use in high flow and medium/high head closed loop heating applications such as hydraulic heating, radiant floor heating, fan coil. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Grundfos

2/3 HP Submersible Dewatering Pump
 

2/3 HP Submersible Dewatering Pump

$375.00  $326.00

This compact and durable submersible dewatering pump is perfect for taking care of low water levels whether it be in your home or at a construction site. This water pump packs a powerful punch in its small frame with strong materials and is easy to us. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Tsurumi

Big Combination Sump Pump System
 

Big Combination Sump Pump System

$499.00  $394.36

Features: -Pump system-Package contains: Controller, charger, two dual micro reed float switches, primary pump and backup pump, instruction manual (battery and acid sold separately)-Offers two combination sump pump systems designed to provide both pr. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Basement Watchdog

Tsurumi Centrifugal Pump with Low Oil Sensor
 

Tsurumi Centrifugal Pump with Low Oil Sensor

$502.00  $428.88

TE-25HA is ideal for general dewatering on small applications. Whether used to irrigate or perform all purpose cleaning, you'll be impressed by the easy starting and quiet running features. Constructed for maximum durability, our dewatering pumps are. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Tsurumi

1/3 HP Plastic Sump Pump
 

1/3 HP Plastic Sump Pump

$135.00  $115.17

Features: -Sump pump-Pumps to 2760 GPH-Engine HP: Less than 1/3-Plastic construction-Product Type: Sump Pump-Distressed: No-Material: Plastic -Material Details: -Power Source: Electric-Engine Horsepower: Less than 1/3 Hp-Switch Type: Mechanic. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Flotec

570 GPM Honda Engine Driven Trash Pump with Low Oil Sensor
 

570 GPM Honda Engine Driven Trash Pump with Low Oil Sensor

$2,924.00  $2,577.27

The most powerful of the Tsurumi EPT3 line this water pump packs an amazing amount of power with Tsurumi's trademark durability and performance. It can be utilized in almost any scenario whether it be in a construction yard or in a flooded basement. F. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Tsurumi

178 GPH Nova Fountain Pump
 

178 GPH Nova Fountain Pump

$34.99  $24.60

Features: -Includes flow-adjustment knob on its side-Submersible, low-wattage pumps-Ideal for fountains, statues, splitters, and small water-178 GPH -Magnet driven motor-Silent operation-Suction cups on base-Max head: 57.6"-Tubing size: 1/2". [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: algreen

1/4 HP Utility Pump
 

1/4 HP Utility Pump

$161.35  $140.44

Features: -Utility pump-Built in electronic water sensor automatically checks for water-Detects water at 0.75" and pumps down to 0.25"-Patented electronic monitoring allows pump to start every 2.5 minutes to check for water-Shuts off if no water is. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Flotec

4 GPM High Pressure Hydrostatic Test Pump
 

4 GPM High Pressure Hydrostatic Test Pump

$5,037.21  $3,048.34

A large volume, high pressure hydrostatic pump. This model is designed for testing boilers, vessels, process piping, steam and gas lines. The ceramic plunger pump has an inner oil bath ensuring long life and increased stability. High flow mechanism qui. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Rice Hydro

3 GPM Low Volume High Pressure Electric Hydrostatic Test Pump
 

3 GPM Low Volume High Pressure Electric Hydrostatic Test Pump

$1,451.16  $889.99

This electric pump is designed for testing sprinkler systems, irrigation lines, pressure vessels, plant process piping, and small diameter water lines. It features a triplex ceramic plunger with oil bath for long life with minimal maintenance. Hydrosta. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Rice Hydro

176 GPM Diesel Semi Trash Water Pump with Electric/Recoil Start
 

176 GPM Diesel Semi Trash Water Pump with Electric/Recoil Start

$1,385.00  $1,184.41

Features: -Water pump-Electric and recoil start-Excellent fuel consumption-Air cooled-Wheel kits-4 Cycle engine-Product Type: Effluent or Sewage Pump-Finish: Black; Red-Distressed: No-Powder Coated Finish: No-Gloss Finish: No-Material: Alumi. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Amico

127 GPM Hi-Pressure Pump
 

127 GPM Hi-Pressure Pump

$878.39  $877.83

Features: -Easy start-Very low noise-Compact and lightweight-Product Type: Utility Pump-Finish: Yellow and black-Distressed: No-Material Casing: Aluminum -Material Casing Details: -Material Shaft: Cast iron -Material Shaft Details: -Impeller. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Subaru

120V Electric Water Pump for MK-370 and MK-470
 

120V Electric Water Pump for MK-370 and MK-470

$57.14

Features: -Electric Water Pump-For MK-370 and MK-470-Item # 155987-MK-Product Type: Circulator Pump-Distressed: No-Power Source: Electric-Starting System: Electric-Country of Manufacture: United States. Specifications: -Voltage: 120 V.Dimensions:. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: MK Diamond

42 GPM Water Transfer Pump
 

42 GPM Water Transfer Pump

$222.00  $221.00

Features: -Water transfer pump-42 GPM-Built to move large volumes of water-Use these pumps to drain a pool or empty a flooded basement in no time-Product Type: Transfer Pump-Distressed: No-Material: Aluminum -Material Details: -Material Casing:. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Be Pressure

120V / 60HZ Electric Water Pump for Tile and Brick Saws
 

120V / 60HZ Electric Water Pump for Tile and Brick Saws

$98.27

Features: -Electric Water Pump for Tile and Brick Saws-Tile and brick saws (except 112, 370 and 470)-Item # 151271-MK-Product Type: Circulator Pump-Distressed: No-Power Source: Electric-Starting System: Electric-Country of Manufacture: United St. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: MK Diamond

360 GPM Honda Engine Driven Trash Pump with Low Oil Sensor
 

360 GPM Honda Engine Driven Trash Pump with Low Oil Sensor

$1,854.00  $1,699.36

Whether it be at a construction site or in a commercial setting this water pump provides both the power and durability to get the job done. This Tsurumi pump combines both reliability thanks to its quality parts and performance with the help of the Hon. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Tsurumi

1600 GMP Deutz F4L913 Trash Pump
 

1600 GMP Deutz F4L913 Trash Pump

$23,779.58  $23,510.00

Features: -Include a removable stainless steel wear plate and oil-filled mechanical seal and shaft bearings-Not include battery-Trash pump-Offer high performance for the most demanding jobs-90 Discharge elbow can be rotated based on job requirement. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Multiquip

550 PSI Triple Diaphragm Hydrostatic Test Water Pump with 5.5 HP Briggs and Stratton Engine
 

550 PSI Triple Diaphragm Hydrostatic Test Water Pump with 5.5 HP Briggs and Stratton Engine

$4,673.98  $2,438.73

This pump is recognized as the most saught-after large volume hydrostatic test pump on the market. Features: -Water pump-Inlet hose with stainless steel mesh filter-Made in the USA-Flow Rate: 11 GPM-Product Type: Test Pump-Finish: Red-Distressed. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Rice Hydro

1/3 HP Tether Float Switch Thermoplastic Submersible Effluent Pump
 

1/3 HP Tether Float Switch Thermoplastic Submersible Effluent Pump

$199.00  $174.99

Features: -Reinforced thermoplastic submersible effluent pump-Piggy-back tether float switch for automatic or manual operation-Capable of handling up to 0.75-inch solids-Designed for easy installation without any plumbing changes-Easy carry handle. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Wayne

1/4 HP Mark I Automatic Sump Pump
 

1/4 HP Mark I Automatic Sump Pump

$92.75  $83.74

Features: -Sump pump-Thermoplastic body resists corrosion, stress, and heat-Pumps up to 1260 gallons per hour-Automatic thermal overload protection-1.25" MPT discharge with threaded coupling-Anti-airlock valve-Tethered float switch, non-mercury, . [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Simer

550 PSI Triple Diaphragm Hydrostatic Test Water Pump with 5.5 HP Honda Engine
 

550 PSI Triple Diaphragm Hydrostatic Test Water Pump with 5.5 HP Honda Engine

$4,875.50  $2,661.72

This pump is recognized as the most saught-after large volume hydrostatic test pump on the market. Features: -Water pump-Inlet hose with stainless steel mesh filter-Made in the USA-Flow Rate: 11 GPM-Maximum Pressure: 550 PSI-Product Type: Test Pu. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Rice Hydro

106 GPM Honda Engine Driven High Pressure Pump
 

106 GPM Honda Engine Driven High Pressure Pump

$1,064.00  $904.00

This Tsurumi pump is specifically made for high pressure output most fully utilized for irrigation, spraying, or sprinkling. Capable of multiple discharge lines combined with power and durability this water pump is unique yet affordable. Features: -Hea. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Tsurumi

2.5 GPM Pneumatic Hydrostatic Test Pump
 

2.5 GPM Pneumatic Hydrostatic Test Pump

$4,320.00  $3,175.42

Features: -2.5 GPM up to 3500 PSI-Made in the USA-Product Type: Test Pump-Finish: Red-Distressed: No-Powder Coated Finish: Yes-Number of Items Included: 1-Pieces Included: -Control Box Required: No -Control Box Included: -Hose Included: Yes. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Rice Hydro

2" Trash Pump Float Switch: Float Switch, Voltage: 110 Volts
 

2" Trash Pump Float Switch: Float Switch, Voltage: 110 Volts

$347.00  $305.00

This durable trash pump is powerful enough to get the job done and compact enough to use in almost any setting whether it be at home, in the office, or at a construction site. With reliable and innovative materials this water pump from Tsurumi is sure. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Tsurumi

2" Trash Pump Float Switch: No Float Switch, Voltage: 110 Volts
 

2" Trash Pump Float Switch: No Float Switch, Voltage: 110 Volts

$315.00  $273.00

This durable trash pump is powerful enough to get the job done and compact enough to use in almost any setting whether it be at home, in the office, or at a construction site. With reliable and innovative materials this water pump from Tsurumi is sure. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Tsurumi

3/4 HP, 2-Wire Stainless Steel Deep Well Submersible Pump
 

3/4 HP, 2-Wire Stainless Steel Deep Well Submersible Pump

$488.33  $396.00

Features: -Deep well submersible pump-Material: Stainless steel-For wells 20 to 175 feet in depth-High efficiency, hermetically sealed motor for long life-Motor enclosure, pump shell and fasteners-Engine HP: 3/4-Single-phase-Submersible design f. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Wayne

Saniswift Water Pump
 

Saniswift Water Pump

$270.00  $224.10

Features: -Water pump-The Saniswift is a gray water pump that is ideally suitable for use in a basement apartment or anywhere in the house where additional fixtures are most wanted-Saniswift's modern style prevails over other bulky gray water pumps. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Saniflo

Water Pump
 

Water Pump

$288.35  $218.55

Lightweight water pump with the power need. Features: -Includes 2" diameter hose system-Water pump-General purpose pump-Cast iron impeller-Silicone carbide mechanical seal-Engine-damaging dirt outside of the engine and in the garden-15.39" H x 1. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Earthquake

1/3 HP Thermoplastic Pedestal Pump
 

1/3 HP Thermoplastic Pedestal Pump

$92.81  $77.96

Features: -Thermoplastic pedestal pump-Adjustable vertical float switch allows for easy changes in operating cycle to fit application-Top suction design filters debris and prevents clogging-Designed for easy installation without any plumbing changes. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Wayne

1.5 GPM Low Volume High Pressure Electric Hydrostatic Test Pump
 

1.5 GPM Low Volume High Pressure Electric Hydrostatic Test Pump

$3,048.84  $1,728.54

This electric pump is designed for testing sprinkler systems, irrigation lines, pressure vessels, plant process piping, and small diameter water lines. It features a triplex ceramic plunger with oil bath for long life with minimal maintenance. Hydrosta. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Rice Hydro

3.5 GPM Firehose Test Pump with Honda Engine
 

3.5 GPM Firehose Test Pump with Honda Engine

$6,032.56  $3,699.99

This pump is designed to safely test fire hose up to 6 inches in diameter. Four independently controlled outlets and a large 2 & 1/2" swivel inlet help to quickly fill and bleed lines for testing. Meets testing standards as set forth in the NFPA (1962. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Rice Hydro

65 GPH Magnetic-Drive Mini Pump
 

65 GPH Magnetic-Drive Mini Pump

$28.99  $20.59

Features: -Pond pump-Made to run continuously, without seals to wear out-Being filled with epoxy, not oil, they cannot leak into the pond-Suitable for table top fountains-Built in adjustable flow control-UL listed to US and Canadian safety standar. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Danner

5,600 GPH VersiFlo Horizontal Pump
 

5,600 GPH VersiFlo Horizontal Pump

$3,705.07

Matala VersiFlow Pumps are a high quality, reliable, industrial-grade, submersible waterfall pump. Their versatile design makes them an excellent choice for heavy and continuous flow duty in water garden skimmers and pump vaults. The pump can be laid. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Matala Usa

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Figura 8. Medición correcta de la elevación estática con respecto a la operación de la bomba. La elevación estática se mide desde la superficie del suministro de agua al punto central de la abertura de entrada de la bomba.

Hidrostática

La rama de la hidráulica que trata con la presión y el equilibrio del agua (en reposo) y otros líquidos es conocida como hidrostática. El agua es el líquido considerado con mas frecuencia en el estudio de los principios básicos de la hidráulica, pero otros líquidos están también incluidos.

Altura de carga estática

La altura por encima de un punto dado de una columna o cuerpo de agua en reposo (el peso de del agua que causa la presión) se denomina altura de carga estática o presión estática (static head en Inglés).

Con respecto a la operación de la bomba, la altura de carga se mide desde el punto central de la conexión de salida de la bomba (vea la Figura 7).

En la mayoría de los cálculos, es una práctica común estimar la presión por pie de la altura de carga en 0,5 psi. El valor correcto para el cálculo de la presión de agua por pie de altura de carga estática es 0,43302 psi. Este valor es preciso para una temperatura del agua a 62 ºF.

Elevación estática

La altura a la que la presión atmosférica hace que una columna de agua se eleve por encima de la fuente de suministro para restaurar el equilibrio se denomina elevación estática (vea la Figura 8). El peso de la columna de agua (1 pulgada cuadrada de área de sección transversal) requerida para restaurar el equilibrio es igual a la presión ejercida por la atmósfera (psi).

La presión de la atmósfera puede estar disponible para levantar agua desde la fuente de suministro a una bomba de elevada mediante la eliminación del aire de la entrada de la bomba (véase la figura 9). En el diagrama de la izquierda, el tubo de entrada (antes de la conexión con la bomba) presiona hacia abajo sobre la superficie del agua con la misma presión (psi) tanto por dentro como fuera de la cañería, debido a que el tubo está abierto en la parte superior.

Figura 9.  Método para hacer que la presión atmosférica esté disponible para la elevación de agua desde la fuente hasta una bomba de elevada.

Si el extremo de la tubería está conectado a una bomba que extrae el aire de la tubería para crear un vacío parcial, el agua sube a una altura A (véase figura 9) que está determinada por la presión atmosférica disponible.

Cuando el barómetro indica 30 pulgadas (76,20 centímetros) de mercurio a nivel del mar, la presión atmosférica a nivel del mar es de 14,74 psi, que es la presión atmosférica  que puede mantener o equilibrar una columna de 34,042 pies (1.037,60 centímetros) de agua, si la columna está totalmente desprovista de aire y la temperatura del agua es de 62 ºF (16,67 ºC). Por lo tanto, la presión atmosférica eleva el agua a una altura que establece el equilibrio entre el peso del agua y la presión de la atmósfera.

Cuando la temperatura del agua esta más caliente que 62 ºF (16,67 ºC), la altura a la que el agua puede ser levantada disminuye debido a la mayor presión de vapor. Una bomba de alimentación de caldera tomando agua a 153 ºF (67,22 ºC), por ejemplo, no puede producir un vacío superior a 21,78 pulgadas  (55,32 centímetros), porque el agua comienza a hervir en ese punto y llena la cámara de la bomba con vapor. Por lo tanto, la elevación teórica es:

El resultado es aproximado ya que no se hace corrección para la columna de agua de 34 pies (10,36 metros) a 62 ºF  (16,67 ºC). En 153 ºF (67,22 ºC), por supuesto, la longitud de la columna se incrementa ligeramente.

Figura 10. La elevación máxima de agua a la temperatura estándar (62 ◦ F) cuando la presión barométrica es de 30 pulgadas (izquierda) y 24 pulgadas (derecha).

La altura máxima a la que el agua a temperatura estándar (62 ºF  ó 16,67 ºC) puede ser levantada se determina por la presión barométrica. Como se muestra en la figura 10, el agua se eleva a una altura de 34,1 pies  (1.039,37 centímetros) cuando la presión barométrica es de 30 pulgadas  (76,20 centímetros), y se eleva a 27,28 pies (831,49 centímetros) cuando la presión barométrica es de 24 pulgadas (60,96 centímetros) (utilizando 0,49116 psi  y 2,30947 pies ó 70,39 centímetros a la cabeza del agua para cada psi).

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