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Principios de Hidráulica

Hidráulica : Descripción funcional de las bombas hidráulicas.

Una comprensión de la es necesaria antes de que los principios básicos de los diversos tipos de bombas puedan ser entendidos. La hidráulica es la rama de la física que se ocupa de las propiedades mecánicas del agua y otros líquidos, y con la aplicación de estas propiedades en la ingeniería.

Mientras la hidráulica entró en prominencia en el último medio siglo, no es una ciencia nueva. Blaise Pascal, un científico francés en el siglo XVII, desarrolló la ley fundamental de la ciencia de la hidráulica.

Pero la incapacidad para producir materiales de sellado satisfactorios, acabados mecanizados, y piezas mecanizadas limitó el crecimiento de la hidráulica antes de la primera parte del siglo XX.

Principios básicos

Como se explica en otras páginas, el agua es una sustancia verdaderamente notable. En su máxima densidad (39,1 ºF), el agua se expande cuando se aplica calor. También se expande ligeramente cuando la temperatura disminuye desde ese punto. Bajo la influencia de la temperatura y la presión, el agua puede existir como un sólido (hielo), un líquido (agua), y un gas (vapor).

La presión ejercida por un líquido sobre una superficie es proporcional al área de la superficie. La figura 1 muestra el principio hidráulico. Dos cilindros de diferentes diámetros están unidos por un tubo y se llenan de agua. Si el área M del pistón más grande, por ejemplo, es 30 veces el área de la superficie S de pistón más pequeño, y un peso de 2 libras es colocado en el pistón más pequeño, la presión se transmite al agua y al pistón más grande. Esa presión es igual a 2 libras por cada porción de la superficie del pistón más grande, que es igual en área a la suma del área de la superficie del pistón más pequeño. El pistón más grande está expuesto a una presión hacia arriba igual a 30 veces la del pistón más pequeño, o sea 60 libras. Además, si un peso 60-libras se coloca en el pistón mayor, los dos pistones permanecen en equilibrio. Este equilibrio es destruido en caso de que un mayor o un menor peso sea aplicado.

Una pequeña cantidad de agua logra equilibrar un peso mucho mayor. Como se muestra en la Figura 2, una locomotora que pesa 101.790 libras puede ser equilibrada en un elevador hidráulico contra una cantidad menor de agua, suponiendo que no hay fugas ni fricción, y que el tubo vertical que conduce al cilindro de émbolo sea excesivamente pequeño en diámetro. Por ejemplo, si el área del émbolo requiere 100 psi de presión en el émbolo para equilibrar la locomotora 101.790 libras, la carga es equilibrada cuando el tubo sea llenado de agua hasta una altura de 231 pies (100 x 2,31).

Figura 1. El principio hidráulico de que la presión ejercida por un líquido sobre una superficie es proporcional al área de la superficie.

Figura 2 El principio de que una menor cantidad de agua puede ser usada para equilibrar un peso mucho mayor.

La presión en cualquier parte de un fluido que tiene una densidad uniforme es proporcional a su profundidad por debajo de la superficie (véase la figura 3). Como se ilustra en la Figura 4, una pesa de 1 libra colocada sobre una escala, totaliza 11 libras, lo que da un peso total o  presión de 11 psi si se ubica sobre una pulgada cuadrada de superficie. Del mismo modo, una columna de agua de 1 pulgada cuadrada de sección transversal y 2,31 pies de altura pesa 1 libra (vea la Figura 4). Un manómetro colocado en la parte inferior de la columna  que sea de 4,62 pies (2,31 x 2), de altura indica una presión de 2 psi. Por lo tanto, la presión de agua a cualquier profundidad es igual a:

 

Figura 3. El principio de que la presión en cualquier porción de un líquido que tenga densidad uniforme es proporcional a su profundidad por debajo de la superficie.

Figura 4. El principio de que la presión de agua en cualquier punto por debajo la superficie es proporcional a la profundidad del punto debajo de la superficie. Se ilustra la presión en psi (izquierda), y se muestra la relación entre la presión del agua en cualquier punto por debajo de la superficie y la profundidad en pies (derecha).

Figura 5. Los fluidos suben hasta el mismo nivel en cada brazo de un tubo en U cuando la temperatura del líquido es la misma en cada brazo (izquierda), y se elevan a niveles diferentes cuando la temperatura es diferente en cada brazo (derecha).

Como se muestra en la Figura 5, los fluidos se elevan hasta el mismo nivel en cada brazo de un tubo en U cuando la temperatura del líquido es la misma en cada brazo. Sin embargo, los fluidos se elevan a niveles diferentes cuando la temperatura es diferente en cada brazo (derecha).

Las consideraciones principales en hidráulica son altura de carga y la elevación. La altura de carga es la profundidad del agua en un recipiente, tubería o conducto, que es una medida de la presión en cualquier punto debajo de la superficie. El término altura de carga (head en Inglés) indica la diferencia en el nivel de agua entre dos puntos. Por lo general se expresa en pies. Los dos tipos de alturas de carga son carga estática y carga dinámica (véase la Figura 6).

En la elevación, o altura de alzamiento, es la altura a la que la presión atmosférica fuerza o eleva al agua por encima de la elevación de su fuente de suministro. Con respecto a la operación de la bomba, la altura, medida desde la elevación de la fuente de suministro hasta el punto central de la abertura de entrada de la bomba se denomina elevación (véase la Figura 7 y Figura 8). Los dos tipos de elevación son elevación estática y elevación dinámica.

Figura 6. Altura de carga dinámica y estática.

Figura 7. Puntos correctos de medición de altura de carga y elevación.

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1/2 HP Submersible Non-Clogging Vortex Utility Pump

1/2 HP Submersible Non-Clogging Vortex Utility Pump

$106.26  $89.29

Features: -Non-clogging reinforced thermoplastic submersible utility pump-Corrosion-resistant reinforced thermoplastic housing, volute and impeller-Bottom suction design filters debris and removes water down to a quarter inch of surface-Passes up to. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

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48 GPM Tether Float Switch Thermoplastic Sump Pump

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Features: -Reinforced thermoplastic submersible sump pump-Piggy-back tether float switch for automatic or manual operation-Top suction design filters debris and prevents clogging-Designed for easy installation without any plumbing changes-Easy carr. [Read more]

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6/10 HP Manual Operation Cast-Iron Heavy Duty Sewage Pump

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$353.31  $287.00

Features: -Cast-iron submersible sewage pump-Manual operation-Capable of handling up to 2-inch solids-Designed for easy installation without any plumbing changes-Easy carry ring for portability-Lower ball bearings for long life and quiet operation. [Read more]

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1/3 HP Tether Float Switch Cast-Iron Sump Pump

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$154.01  $119.00

Features: -Cast-iron submersible sump pump-Piggy-back tether float switch for automatic or manual operation-Top suction design filters debris and prevents clogging-Designed for easy installation without any plumbing changes-Epoxy-coated steel, high. [Read more]

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3/4 HP Cast-Iron Lawn Sprinkling Pump

3/4 HP Cast-Iron Lawn Sprinkling Pump

$287.49  $239.00

Features: -Cast-iron lawn sprinkling pump-Material: Durable Cast-iron-Operates an underground sprinkling system using a high volume of water at low pressure-Engine HP: 3/4-Pumps up to 38.6 GPM at 5 feet (30 PSI)-Single-phase-Product Type: Fountai. [Read more]

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48" Rigid Liner Kit with 17.5 GPM Pump and Fittings for 2 Outlets

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For use with the Adirondack Bubbling Rock Feature (sold separately). Features: -Kit includes a rigid liner basin, a 17.5 GPM pump, a hose, a flow valve, and the fittings needed for installation for 2 outlets-Product Type: Fountain Pump-Distressed: N. [Read more]

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400GPH Mag Drive Pump with 2 Fountain Nozzles

400GPH Mag Drive Pump with 2 Fountain Nozzles

$119.99  $73.00

Mat drive motors are super quiet and very energy efficient. These pumps use epoxy filled motors so there"s no oil and your pump is fish safe! Features: -Material: poly-Can be used under water or externally as an inline pump-A foam pre filter is inc. [Read more]

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Brand: Easy Pro

2550GPH Skimmer Pump 138" Shut Off

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$300.99  $195.00

The Proline Skimmer pump with Hy-Drive technology is a continuous duty pump designed for use inside a pond skimmer to move large volumes of water silently and efficiently through filtration systems, a waterfall, stream or fountain. It's compact size a. [Read more]

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1/6 HP Heavy Duty Submersible Thermoplastic Utility Pump

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$80.01  $73.17

Features: -Submersible thermoplastic utility pump-Corrosion-resistant reinforced thermoplastic motor housing, volute and impeller-Bottom suction design filters and removes water down to 0.13-inch of surface-Stainless steel ring handle for easy porta. [Read more]

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5 GPM High Pressure Hydrostatic Test Pump

5 GPM High Pressure Hydrostatic Test Pump

$11,930.23  $6,941.53

A large volume, high pressure hydrostatic pump. This model is designed for testing boilers, vessels, process piping, steam and gas lines. The ceramic plunger pump has an inner oil bath ensuring long life and increased stability. High flow mechanism qui. [Read more]

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10000 PSI Pneumatic Hydrostatic Test Pump

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$5,169.77  $2,899.99

A versatile and compact test pump can operate from 300 to 10,000 PSI, and is designed for testing in small confined spaces or remote locations. Lightweight at only 42 lbs, this unit is easy to maneuver between test sites. Manufactured with the quality. [Read more]

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3 GPM Hydrostatic Test Pump with Honda Engine

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$3,381.40  $2,129.11

This pump is designed for testing boilers, vessels, process piping, steam and gas lines. Complete with a Triplex ceramic Plunger Pump and a Honda engine. Hydrostatic pumps work by filling your vessel or piping with highly pressurized/non-explosive liqu. [Read more]

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48" Rigid Liner Kit with 17.5 GPM Pump and Fittings for 1 Outlet

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For use with the 30-inch or 40-inch Basalt or the Babbling Brook Bubbling Rock Feature (sold separately). Features: -Kit includes a rigid liner basin, a 17.5 GPM pump, a hose, a flow valve, and the fittings needed for installation for 1 outlet-Produc. [Read more]

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317 GPM 3" Briggs & Stratton Trash Pro Water Pump

317 GPM 3" Briggs & Stratton Trash Pro Water Pump

$1,882.52  $1,577.00

Features: -Thrust balance impeller better handles pump loads for extended engine life-Engine: Briggs & Stratton-Series: Vanguard-Compact overhead valve design-Mechanical governor-Patented clamped impellers allows for optimum impeller shape and int. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

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65 GPH Magnetic-Drive Mini Pump

65 GPH Magnetic-Drive Mini Pump

$28.99  $19.37

Features: -Pond pump-Made to run continuously, without seals to wear out-Being filled with epoxy, not oil, they cannot leak into the pond-Suitable for table top fountains-Built in adjustable flow control-UL listed to US and Canadian safety standar. [Read more]

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8 GPM Shallow Well Pump Jet

8 GPM Shallow Well Pump Jet

$323.99  $178.44

Features: -Pump jet-New revision of an "old hand" provides good pressure pumping from wells where the depth-to-water is 25' or less-Capacities to 8 GPM at 40 PSI-Corrosion resistant nozzle and venturi-Fiberglass-reinforced thermoplastic provides. [Read more]

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55 GPM Semi-Vortex Submersible Trash Pump with Agitator

55 GPM Semi-Vortex Submersible Trash Pump with Agitator

$640.00  $544.00

Tsurumi water pumps beefed up version of the HS2 model, this water pump offers both power and compact design. Ideal for pumping sand, solids, and debris with minimal wear and clogging. This water pump is reliable and worry free with its strong lasting. [Read more]

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1/2 HP Shallow Well Jet Pump

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$214.92  $194.20

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2 HP Manual Operation Cast-Iron Heavy Duty Commercial Sewage Pump

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$983.86  $891.31

Features: -Commercial-grade cast-iron submersible sewage pump-Manual operation-Capable of handling 2-inch solids-Designed for easy installation without any plumbing changes-Easy carry ring for portability-Upper and lower ball bearings for quiet op. [Read more]

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264 GPM Robin Engine Driven Centrifugal Pump with Low Oil Sensor

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$616.00  $524.00

Robin engine driven water pump that provides power and reliability for any excess water situation. With durable and reliable materials, allows for wear and tear with minimum maintenance. This pump is both high powered and high quality serving as an af. [Read more]

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5.5 HP High Pressure Water Pump

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$699.99  $283.00

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158 GPM Semi Trash and Water Transfer Pump with Hose Kit

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1/4 HP Automatic Submersible Sump Pump

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1/4 HP Mark I Automatic Sump Pump

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20000 PSI Pneumatic Hydrostatic Test Pump

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$7,300.00  $5,492.96

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1/6 HP Oil-Free Thermoplastic Submersible Utility Pump

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$76.52  $57.66

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2.5 GPM Pneumatic Hydrostatic Test Pump

2.5 GPM Pneumatic Hydrostatic Test Pump

$4,320.00  $3,175.58

Features: -2.5 GPM up to 3500 PSI-Made in the USA-Product Type: Test Pump-Finish: Red-Distressed: No-Powder Coated Finish: Yes-Number of Items Included: 1-Pieces Included: -Control Box Required: No -Control Box Included: -Hose Included: Yes. [Read more]

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106 GPM Honda GX - 160 High Pressure Pump

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$2,384.00  $987.00

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1 HP Semi-Vortex Submerisble Trash Pump with Agitator and Float Switch

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$545.00  $480.47

A slightly larger and more powerful version of the HS model, this durable trash pump is powerful enough to get the job done and compact enough to use in almost any setting whether it be at home, in the office, or at a construction site. Combining both. [Read more]

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137 GPM Honda Engine Driven Centrifugal Pump with Low Oil Sensor

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$613.00  $521.00

Combining the power of a Honda engine and the durability that has come to personify Tsurumi pumps, this water pump is ideal for any situation. Both lightweight and powerful it can be used in almost environment and provides an affordable and efficient. [Read more]

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1/3 HP Tether Float Switch Thermoplastic Submersible Effluent Pump

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$199.00  $151.00

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3/4 HP Cast Iron Professional Series Sewage Pump

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$377.30  $307.00

Features: -Sewage pump-Energy efficient PSC motor for smoother, quieter operation-Rust proof impeller-Reliable, professional design-Superior performance-Rugged, cast iron construction for longer pump life-Made in the USA-Product Type: Effluent o. [Read more]

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176 GPM Diesel Semi Trash Water Pump with Electric/Recoil Start

176 GPM Diesel Semi Trash Water Pump with Electric/Recoil Start

$1,385.00  $1,325.72

Features: -Water pump-Electric and recoil start-Excellent fuel consumption-Air cooled-Wheel kits-4 Cycle engine-Product Type: Effluent or Sewage Pump-Finish: Black; Red-Distressed: No-Powder Coated Finish: No-Gloss Finish: No-Material: Alumi. [Read more]

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10 GPM Hydrostatic Test Pump with Honda Engine

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$4,441.86  $2,784.89

This mid volume, medium pressure hydrostatic pump is designed for testing lines up to 16 inches in diameter. If obtaining precise information is important to you, then the Rice Hydro DEH10/450 is just what you've been searching for. Hydrostatic pumps wo. [Read more]

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1/2" Impeller 115V Water Pump with Aquastat / Timer / Check Valve

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$462.00  $272.00

Features: -Pump water-Material: Stainless steel-UP series pumps are specifically designed for heating systems-Suitable for circulation of hot domestic water and for circulation of liquid in cooling and air-conditioning systems-Water-conduction part. [Read more]

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5-1/2 HP Gas Engine Pump

5-1/2 HP Gas Engine Pump

$483.76  $285.37

Features: -Gas engine pump-Lightweight, portable unit with rugged carrying handle-Easy portability for water transfer in remote locations-Excellent for floodwater removal when power source is out-Convenient for remote irrigation where water lines a. [Read more]

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85 GPM Diaphragm Pump

85 GPM Diaphragm Pump

$4,482.00  $1,945.00

Features: -Diaphragm Pump-Our diaphragm pumps have proven themselves over decades with dependable performance and minimal maintenance-Excels in applications with high solid contents and seepage-Easily switches from inline to transverse flow-Positiv. [Read more]

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211 GPM 3" Trash/Water Pump with 6.5 HP Engine

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$459.99  $268.44

This trash/water pump is capable of de-watering up to 12,660 gallons per hour. Dependable and quiet, the TWP365 can be easily transported weighing only 64 lbs. A great product for the price, this trash/water pump can bail you out when you need it most. [Read more]

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Brand: Buffalo Tools

3" Suction 396 GPM Honda GX-240 Trash Pump

3" Suction 396 GPM Honda GX-240 Trash Pump

$3,542.00  $1,687.13

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5 GPM Hydrostatic Test Water Pump

5 GPM Hydrostatic Test Water Pump

$3,381.40  $2,159.99

This mid volume, low pressure hydrostatic pump is designed for testing lines of smaller diameter. The RP-3C is a must-have for plumbing and landscape contractors. This hydrostatic pump includes a polypropylene roller pump for exceptionally smooth test. [Read more]

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Computer Controlled A/C - D/C Battery Backup Sump Pump System

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$549.00  $524.57

Features: -Includes: Dual float switch for added protection and sensor to monitor battery fluid levels-Pump system-Material: Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene-Fits next to the main AC pump and automatically begins pumping during a power outage, when t. [Read more]

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1000 GPH Battery Backup Sump Pump System

1000 GPH Battery Backup Sump Pump System

$199.00  $139.82

Features: -Includes: Controller, charger, dual micro reed float switch, pump, sensor to monitor battery fluid levels and battery box (battery sold separately)-Pump system-Fits next to the main AC pump and automatically begins pumping during a power o. [Read more]

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308.20 GPM Diesel 4" Trash Water Pump with Recoil Start

308.20 GPM Diesel 4" Trash Water Pump with Recoil Start

$1,476.67  $1,215.00

Features: -Water pump-Excellent fuel consumption-Recoil start-Air cooled-4 Cycle engine-Wheel kits-Product Type: Effluent or Sewage Pump-Finish: Black; Red-Distressed: No-Powder Coated Finish: No-Gloss Finish: No-Material: Aluminum -Material. [Read more]

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Brand: Amico

62 GPM Low Level- Submersible Dewatering Pump

62 GPM Low Level- Submersible Dewatering Pump

$446.00  $387.00

Perfect water pump for low levels of water. This water pump can suck a small puddle dry, ideal for surfaces without a sump. Utilizing the top discharge for maximum utility, combines durable materials with maximum power for the best reliability and per. [Read more]

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Electric Water Pump

Electric Water Pump

$173.00  $168.99

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238 GPM Semi-Trash Pump with Honda Engine

238 GPM Semi-Trash Pump with Honda Engine

$708.00

Features: -Honda engine with low oil sensor-Silicon carbide mechanical seals-Pump casings that are die cast aluminum-Spherodial graphite cast iron impellers and volutes-Vibration isolators built into the full steel roll cage-General dewatering-Pu. [Read more]

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300 PSI Hydrostatic Test Water Pump with 5.0 HP Briggs and Stratton Engine

300 PSI Hydrostatic Test Water Pump with 5.0 HP Briggs and Stratton Engine

$4,405.28  $2,075.99

Features: -Water pump-Automatic pressure regulator with inlet bypass-Made in the USA-Output flow: 5 GPM-Maximum Pressure: 300 PSI-Product Type: Test Pump-Finish: Red-Distressed: No-Powder Coated Finish: Yes-Number of Items Included: 1-Pieces. [Read more]

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198 GPM 2" Briggs & Stratton Trash Pro Water Pump

198 GPM 2" Briggs & Stratton Trash Pro Water Pump

$1,215.22  $985.00

Features: -Thrust balance impeller better handles pump loads for extended engine life-Engine: Briggs & Stratton-Series: Vanguard-Compact overhead valve design-Mechanical governor-Patented clamped impellers allows for optimum impeller shape and int. [Read more]

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87 GPM Electric Submersible Clean Water Pump with Single-Phase Motors

87 GPM Electric Submersible Clean Water Pump with Single-Phase Motors

$1,260.00  $526.06

Features: -Electric Submersible Clean Water Pump with Single-Phase Motors-It's portable, lightweight and reliable-Has improved impeller wear making it the perfect choice for applications with sandy water and higher heads-Double mechanical oil filled. [Read more]

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500 PSI Hydrostatic Test Pump with Three Phase

500 PSI Hydrostatic Test Pump with Three Phase

$5,504.55  $3,142.74

This hydrostatic test pump is designed for testing small diameter water lines. It includes a Triplex plunger, and is powered by a 2.0 HP electric motor. Features: -Three phase motor-Automatic pressure regulator with inlet bypass-Made in the USA-Rug. [Read more]

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Brand: Rice Hydro

200 GPH Statuary Pump

200 GPH Statuary Pump

$23.99  $23.92

Features: -Fountain pump-Magnetic drive-Variable flow control-For submersible use-Grounded plug-Product Type: Fountain Pump-Distressed: No-Portable: Yes. Dimensions: -Overall Height - Top to Bottom: 7.5-Overall Width - Side to Side: 4.25-Overal. [Read more]

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Brand: Danner

1/6 HP Tempest Utility Submersible Pump

1/6 HP Tempest Utility Submersible Pump

$118.16  $86.70

Features: -Submersible pump-Pumps 1500 gallons per hour-Pump requires a minimum water depth of 0.5" for start-up-Pumps down to within 0.19" of the pump base-For sump-less cellar draining-Pump out window wells-Drain low spots-1" Discharge-Powere. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Flotec

314 GPM Trash Pump

314 GPM Trash Pump

$1,295.72  $1,263.73

Features: -Easy start-Compact and lightweight-Easy maintenance-Product Type: Utility Pump-Finish: Yellow and black-Distressed: No-Material Casing: Aluminum -Material Casing Details: -Material Shaft: Cast iron -Material Shaft Details: -Impelle. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Subaru

350 GPH Danner Pondmaster Pump with 18' Cord

350 GPH Danner Pondmaster Pump with 18' Cord

$118.99  $116.00

Features: -Danner pond master 350GPH pump with cord-Magnetic drive pump made to run continuously-Without seals to wear out-Pump filled with epoxy instead of oil-Collection: Pondmaster Magnetic-Drive Utility Pumps-Product Type: Pond Pump-Finish: B. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: E G Danner

100 GPH PT320 Powerjet Fountain Pump Kit

100 GPH PT320 Powerjet Fountain Pump Kit

$79.99  $77.04

Features: -Fountain pump-Material: Plastic ceramic magnet-High performance, foam-free strainer cage technology for less maintenance-Extremely energy efficient pump-Complete kit with multiple fountain heads and hose connectors-100 GPH-Collection: . [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Laguna Waterworks

1-1/2 HP Self Priming High Capacity Sprinkler Pump

1-1/2 HP Self Priming High Capacity Sprinkler Pump

$415.20  $263.04

Features: -Pond pump-Ideal for lawn sprinkling applications-Capable of operating up to 30 sprinkler heads-Self-priming design permits use on automatic sprinkler systems and also for de-watering, and water transfer-Motors have stainless steel shaft. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Flotec

Recirculating Water and Air Pump

Recirculating Water and Air Pump

$87.99  $74.50

Features: -Fountain pump-In line or submersible operation-Energy efficient-250 Gallons per hour-0.5" FPT inlet-0.5" MPT outlet-Product Type: Fountain Pump-Distressed: No-Power Source: Electric-Portable: Yes. Dimensions: -Overall Height - Top to. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Danner

1.5 HP Cast-Iron Lawn Sprinkling Pump

1.5 HP Cast-Iron Lawn Sprinkling Pump

$337.49  $278.00

Features: -Cast-iron lawn sprinkling pump-Material: Durable Cast-iron-Operates an underground sprinkling system using a high volume of water at low pressure-Engine HP: 1.5-Pumps up to 45.8 GPM at 5 feet (30 PSI)-Single-phase-Product Type: Fountai. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Wayne

4 GPM Electric Firehose Test Pump

4 GPM Electric Firehose Test Pump

$7,953.49  $4,989.99

This pump is designed to safely test fire hose up to 6 inches in diameter. Four independently controlled outlets and a large 2 & 1/2" swivel inlet help to quickly fill and bleed lines for testing. Meets testing standards as set forth in the NFPA (1962. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Rice Hydro

79.33 GPH Submersible Trash Pump

79.33 GPH Submersible Trash Pump

$363.50

Features: -The built-in thermal protector turns off the power supply in case of overload, therefore protecting the motor-Product Type: Utility Pump-Finish: Silver-Distressed: No-Material Casing: Aluminum -Material Casing Details: -Number of Items. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Subaru

76.67 GPM Submersible Pump

76.67 GPM Submersible Pump

$511.00  $508.88

Features: -The built-in thermal protector turns off the power supply in case of overload, therefore protecting the motor-Product Type: Utility Pump-Distressed: No-Material Casing: Aluminum -Material Casing Details: -Number of Items Included: 1-Pi. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Subaru

1/2 HP, 2-Wire Stainless Steel Deep Well Submersible Pump

1/2 HP, 2-Wire Stainless Steel Deep Well Submersible Pump

$423.78  $331.00

Features: -Deep well submersible pump-Material: Stainless steel-For wells 20 to 120 feet in depth-High efficiency, hermetically sealed motor for long life-Motor enclosure, pump shell and fasteners-Engine HP: 1/2-Single-phase-Submersible design f. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Wayne

170 GPM Electric Submersible Clean Water Pump with Single-Phase Motors

170 GPM Electric Submersible Clean Water Pump with Single-Phase Motors

$3,580.00  $1,445.00

Features: -Electric Submersible Clean Water Pump with Single-Phase Motors-Has built-in thermal overload protection that shuts down the pump when operating temperature rises to unsafe levels-Ideally suited for 8" casing pipe applications for dewateri. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Multiquip

De-Watering Sump Pump

De-Watering Sump Pump

$71.59  $49.00

Features: -De-watering sump pump-Completely submersible-Easily attaches to garden hose-300 Gallons per hour-Product Type: Sump Pump-Distressed: No-Portable: Yes. Dimensions: -Pumps down to 0.13"-Overall Height - Top to Bottom: 8-Overall Width - . [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Danner

48" Rigid Liner Kit with 17.5 GPM Pump and Fittings for 3 Outlets

48" Rigid Liner Kit with 17.5 GPM Pump and Fittings for 3 Outlets

$944.35  $775.00

For use with the 3 Basalts or Cascade Bubbling Rock Feature (sold separately). Features: -Kit includes a rigid liner basin, a 17.5 GPM pump, a hose, a flow valve, and the fittings needed for installation for 3 outlets-Product Type: Fountain Pump-Dis. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Hargrove Outdoor Products

40" Rigid Liner Kit with 10 GPM Pump and Fittings for 2 Outlets

40" Rigid Liner Kit with 10 GPM Pump and Fittings for 2 Outlets

$765.73  $630.95

For use with the Sonoma and Mesa Bubbling Rock Features (sold separately). Features: -Kit includes a rigid liner basin, a 10 GPM pump, a hose, and the fittings needed for installation for 2 outlets-Product Type: Fountain Pump-Distressed: No-Number. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Hargrove Outdoor Products

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Figura 8. Medición correcta de la elevación estática con respecto a la operación de la bomba. La elevación estática se mide desde la superficie del suministro de agua al punto central de la abertura de entrada de la bomba.

Hidrostática

La rama de la hidráulica que trata con la presión y el equilibrio del agua (en reposo) y otros líquidos es conocida como hidrostática. El agua es el líquido considerado con mas frecuencia en el estudio de los principios básicos de la hidráulica, pero otros líquidos están también incluidos.

Altura de carga estática

La altura por encima de un punto dado de una columna o cuerpo de agua en reposo (el peso de del agua que causa la presión) se denomina altura de carga estática o presión estática (static head en Inglés).

Con respecto a la operación de la bomba, la altura de carga se mide desde el punto central de la conexión de salida de la bomba (vea la Figura 7).

En la mayoría de los cálculos, es una práctica común estimar la presión por pie de la altura de carga en 0,5 psi. El valor correcto para el cálculo de la presión de agua por pie de altura de carga estática es 0,43302 psi. Este valor es preciso para una temperatura del agua a 62 ºF.

Elevación estática

La altura a la que la presión atmosférica hace que una columna de agua se eleve por encima de la fuente de suministro para restaurar el equilibrio se denomina elevación estática (vea la Figura 8). El peso de la columna de agua (1 pulgada cuadrada de área de sección transversal) requerida para restaurar el equilibrio es igual a la presión ejercida por la atmósfera (psi).

La presión de la atmósfera puede estar disponible para levantar agua desde la fuente de suministro a una bomba de elevada mediante la eliminación del aire de la entrada de la bomba (véase la figura 9). En el diagrama de la izquierda, el tubo de entrada (antes de la conexión con la bomba) presiona hacia abajo sobre la superficie del agua con la misma presión (psi) tanto por dentro como fuera de la cañería, debido a que el tubo está abierto en la parte superior.

Figura 9.  Método para hacer que la presión atmosférica esté disponible para la elevación de agua desde la fuente hasta una bomba de elevada.

Si el extremo de la tubería está conectado a una bomba que extrae el aire de la tubería para crear un vacío parcial, el agua sube a una altura A (véase figura 9) que está determinada por la presión atmosférica disponible.

Cuando el barómetro indica 30 pulgadas (76,20 centímetros) de mercurio a nivel del mar, la presión atmosférica a nivel del mar es de 14,74 psi, que es la presión atmosférica  que puede mantener o equilibrar una columna de 34,042 pies (1.037,60 centímetros) de agua, si la columna está totalmente desprovista de aire y la temperatura del agua es de 62 ºF (16,67 ºC). Por lo tanto, la presión atmosférica eleva el agua a una altura que establece el equilibrio entre el peso del agua y la presión de la atmósfera.

Cuando la temperatura del agua esta más caliente que 62 ºF (16,67 ºC), la altura a la que el agua puede ser levantada disminuye debido a la mayor presión de vapor. Una bomba de alimentación de caldera tomando agua a 153 ºF (67,22 ºC), por ejemplo, no puede producir un vacío superior a 21,78 pulgadas  (55,32 centímetros), porque el agua comienza a hervir en ese punto y llena la cámara de la bomba con vapor. Por lo tanto, la elevación teórica es:

El resultado es aproximado ya que no se hace corrección para la columna de agua de 34 pies (10,36 metros) a 62 ºF  (16,67 ºC). En 153 ºF (67,22 ºC), por supuesto, la longitud de la columna se incrementa ligeramente.

Figura 10. La elevación máxima de agua a la temperatura estándar (62 ◦ F) cuando la presión barométrica es de 30 pulgadas (izquierda) y 24 pulgadas (derecha).

La altura máxima a la que el agua a temperatura estándar (62 ºF  ó 16,67 ºC) puede ser levantada se determina por la presión barométrica. Como se muestra en la figura 10, el agua se eleva a una altura de 34,1 pies  (1.039,37 centímetros) cuando la presión barométrica es de 30 pulgadas  (76,20 centímetros), y se eleva a 27,28 pies (831,49 centímetros) cuando la presión barométrica es de 24 pulgadas (60,96 centímetros) (utilizando 0,49116 psi  y 2,30947 pies ó 70,39 centímetros a la cabeza del agua para cada psi).

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