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Principios de Hidráulica

Hidráulica : Descripción funcional de las bombas hidráulicas.

Una comprensión de la es necesaria antes de que los principios básicos de los diversos tipos de bombas puedan ser entendidos. La hidráulica es la rama de la física que se ocupa de las propiedades mecánicas del agua y otros líquidos, y con la aplicación de estas propiedades en la ingeniería.

Mientras la hidráulica entró en prominencia en el último medio siglo, no es una ciencia nueva. Blaise Pascal, un científico francés en el siglo XVII, desarrolló la ley fundamental de la ciencia de la hidráulica.

Pero la incapacidad para producir materiales de sellado satisfactorios, acabados mecanizados, y piezas mecanizadas limitó el crecimiento de la hidráulica antes de la primera parte del siglo XX.

Principios básicos

Como se explica en otras páginas, el agua es una sustancia verdaderamente notable. En su máxima densidad (39,1 ºF), el agua se expande cuando se aplica calor. También se expande ligeramente cuando la temperatura disminuye desde ese punto. Bajo la influencia de la temperatura y la presión, el agua puede existir como un sólido (hielo), un líquido (agua), y un gas (vapor).

La presión ejercida por un líquido sobre una superficie es proporcional al área de la superficie. La figura 1 muestra el principio hidráulico. Dos cilindros de diferentes diámetros están unidos por un tubo y se llenan de agua. Si el área M del pistón más grande, por ejemplo, es 30 veces el área de la superficie S de pistón más pequeño, y un peso de 2 libras es colocado en el pistón más pequeño, la presión se transmite al agua y al pistón más grande. Esa presión es igual a 2 libras por cada porción de la superficie del pistón más grande, que es igual en área a la suma del área de la superficie del pistón más pequeño. El pistón más grande está expuesto a una presión hacia arriba igual a 30 veces la del pistón más pequeño, o sea 60 libras. Además, si un peso 60-libras se coloca en el pistón mayor, los dos pistones permanecen en equilibrio. Este equilibrio es destruido en caso de que un mayor o un menor peso sea aplicado.

Una pequeña cantidad de agua logra equilibrar un peso mucho mayor. Como se muestra en la Figura 2, una locomotora que pesa 101.790 libras puede ser equilibrada en un elevador hidráulico contra una cantidad menor de agua, suponiendo que no hay fugas ni fricción, y que el tubo vertical que conduce al cilindro de émbolo sea excesivamente pequeño en diámetro. Por ejemplo, si el área del émbolo requiere 100 psi de presión en el émbolo para equilibrar la locomotora 101.790 libras, la carga es equilibrada cuando el tubo sea llenado de agua hasta una altura de 231 pies (100 x 2,31).

Figura 1. El principio hidráulico de que la presión ejercida por un líquido sobre una superficie es proporcional al área de la superficie.

Figura 2 El principio de que una menor cantidad de agua puede ser usada para equilibrar un peso mucho mayor.

La presión en cualquier parte de un fluido que tiene una densidad uniforme es proporcional a su profundidad por debajo de la superficie (véase la figura 3). Como se ilustra en la Figura 4, una pesa de 1 libra colocada sobre una escala, totaliza 11 libras, lo que da un peso total o  presión de 11 psi si se ubica sobre una pulgada cuadrada de superficie. Del mismo modo, una columna de agua de 1 pulgada cuadrada de sección transversal y 2,31 pies de altura pesa 1 libra (vea la Figura 4). Un manómetro colocado en la parte inferior de la columna  que sea de 4,62 pies (2,31 x 2), de altura indica una presión de 2 psi. Por lo tanto, la presión de agua a cualquier profundidad es igual a:

 

Figura 3. El principio de que la presión en cualquier porción de un líquido que tenga densidad uniforme es proporcional a su profundidad por debajo de la superficie.

Figura 4. El principio de que la presión de agua en cualquier punto por debajo la superficie es proporcional a la profundidad del punto debajo de la superficie. Se ilustra la presión en psi (izquierda), y se muestra la relación entre la presión del agua en cualquier punto por debajo de la superficie y la profundidad en pies (derecha).

Figura 5. Los fluidos suben hasta el mismo nivel en cada brazo de un tubo en U cuando la temperatura del líquido es la misma en cada brazo (izquierda), y se elevan a niveles diferentes cuando la temperatura es diferente en cada brazo (derecha).

Como se muestra en la Figura 5, los fluidos se elevan hasta el mismo nivel en cada brazo de un tubo en U cuando la temperatura del líquido es la misma en cada brazo. Sin embargo, los fluidos se elevan a niveles diferentes cuando la temperatura es diferente en cada brazo (derecha).

Las consideraciones principales en hidráulica son altura de carga y la elevación. La altura de carga es la profundidad del agua en un recipiente, tubería o conducto, que es una medida de la presión en cualquier punto debajo de la superficie. El término altura de carga (head en Inglés) indica la diferencia en el nivel de agua entre dos puntos. Por lo general se expresa en pies. Los dos tipos de alturas de carga son carga estática y carga dinámica (véase la Figura 6).

En la elevación, o altura de alzamiento, es la altura a la que la presión atmosférica fuerza o eleva al agua por encima de la elevación de su fuente de suministro. Con respecto a la operación de la bomba, la altura, medida desde la elevación de la fuente de suministro hasta el punto central de la abertura de entrada de la bomba se denomina elevación (véase la Figura 7 y Figura 8). Los dos tipos de elevación son elevación estática y elevación dinámica.

Figura 6. Altura de carga dinámica y estática.

Figura 7. Puntos correctos de medición de altura de carga y elevación.

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425 GPM Honda GX - 240 Centrifugal Pump

425 GPM Honda GX - 240 Centrifugal Pump

Features: -425 GPM Honda GX - 240 Centrifugal Pump-Municipalities requiring a pump to clear city streets and public works projects can always find a use for a Multiquip centrifugal pump-Ideally suited for water transfer between holding tanks-Self pr. [Read more]

Brand: Multiquip

Gulp UltraMax Water Removal Siphon Pump

Gulp UltraMax Water Removal Siphon Pump

Features: -Hand pump-Made from non-corrosion materials-Can remove 8 gallons of water per minute (about 5 strokes)-Self-priming-Contour grip handle-Perfect for boaters-Gulp collection-Collection: Gulp-Product Type: Hand Pump-Distressed: No-Swi. [Read more]

Brand: ConservCo

208 GPM 2" Trash/Water Pump with 5.5 HP Engine

208 GPM 2" Trash/Water Pump with 5.5 HP Engine

This trash/water pump is capable of de-watering up to 9,000 gallons per hour. Dependable and quiet, the TWPUMP can be easily transported. weighing only 62 lbs, this is a great product for the price. This trash/water pump can bail you out when you nee. [Read more]

Brand: Buffalo Tools

5 GPM Firehose Test Pump with Honda Engine

5 GPM Firehose Test Pump with Honda Engine

This pump is designed to safely test fire hose up to 6 inches in diameter. Four independently controlled outlets and a large 2 & 1/2" swivel inlet help to quickly fill and bleed lines for testing. Meets testing standards as set forth in the NFPA (1962. [Read more]

Brand: Rice Hydro

3 GPM Electric Firehose Test Pump

3 GPM Electric Firehose Test Pump

This pump is designed to safely test fire hose up to 6 inch in diameter. Two independently controlled outlets and a large 2 & 1/2" swivel inlet help to quickly fill and bleed lines for testing. Meets testing standards as set forth in the NFPA (1962.5) . [Read more]

Brand: Rice Hydro

1/2 HP Tether Float Switch Sewage Pump

1/2 HP Tether Float Switch Sewage Pump

Features: -Cast-iron submersible sewage pump-Piggy-back tether float switch for automatic or manual operation-Capable of handling up to 2-inch solids-Designed for easy installation without any plumbing changes-Easy carry ring for portability-Lower. [Read more]

Brand: Wayne

530 GPH Pond Jet Pond Pump

530 GPH Pond Jet Pond Pump

Features: -Pump-Protective outer shell to prevent debris from entering the pump-Flow control diverter-Telescopic riser-Magnetic driven motor-Product Type: Jet Pump-Finish: Black-Hardware Finish: Stainless steel-Distressed: No-Powder Coated Fin. [Read more]

Brand: Koolatron

427 GPM Water Pump

427 GPM Water Pump

Features: -Water pump-4" Intake and Outlet with back flow check valve-Durable 9 Horse Power Engine (EPA and CARB Approved)-427 Gallons per minute-Pump overhead lift-2.4 Hour run time per tank-Construction Material: stainless steel-Product Type:. [Read more]

Brand: DuroMax

4 HP Honda Gasoline-Powered Transfer Utility Pump

4 HP Honda Gasoline-Powered Transfer Utility Pump

Features: -Aluminum and cast-iron water transfer utility pump-OHV 4-cycle Honda engine passes up to 0.5-inch solids-Easy connection to standard discharge hose-Heavy-duty water transfer pump you can take anywhere-Aluminum roll cage and pump housing. [Read more]

Brand: Wayne

270 GPM Electric Submersible Clean Water Pump with Three-Phase Motors

270 GPM Electric Submersible Clean Water Pump with Three-Phase Motors

Features: -Electric Submersible Clean Water Pump with Three-Phase Motors-Multiquip's electric submersible pumps are the perfect tool for a wide range of dewatering applications-Mechanical seal within an oil filled chamber for positive lubrication-Re. [Read more]

Brand: Multiquip

20000 PSI Pneumatic Hydrostatic Test Pump

20000 PSI Pneumatic Hydrostatic Test Pump

Features: -Made in the USA-Product Type: Test Pump-Finish: Red-Distressed: No-Powder Coated Finish: Yes-Number of Items Included: 1-Control Box Required: No-Hose Included: Yes-Castors Included: No-Power Source: Pneumatic-Shredder Impeller: No. [Read more]

Brand: Rice Hydro

205 GPH Permanently Lubricated Pump

205 GPH Permanently Lubricated Pump

Features: -Permanently lubricated pumps-Operates submersed-No plug-Epoxy-coated aluminum housing-Bottom inlet has snap-off screen for easy cleaning-Export pump-Oil filled-Applications include aquariums, swimming pools, water displays, ice makers. [Read more]

Brand: Little Giant

1600 GMP Deutz F4L913 Trash Pump

1600 GMP Deutz F4L913 Trash Pump

Features: -Trash pump-Offer high performance for the most demanding jobs-Include a removable stainless steel wear plate and oil-filled mechanical seal and shaft bearings-90 Discharge elbow can be rotated based on job requirements-Cast iron suction. [Read more]

Brand: Multiquip

1/6 HP Tempest Utility Submersible Pump

1/6 HP Tempest Utility Submersible Pump

Features: -Submersible pump-Pumps 1500 gallons per hour-Pump requires a minimum water depth of 0.5" for start-up-Pumps down to within 0.19" of the pump base-For sump-less cellar draining-Pump out window wells-Drain low spots-1" Discharge-Powere. [Read more]

Brand: Flotec

1/2 HP Cast-Iron Pedestal Pump

1/2 HP Cast-Iron Pedestal Pump

Features: -Cast-iron pedestal pump-Adjustable vertical float switch allows for easy changes in operating cycle to fit application-Top suction design filters debris and prevents clogging-Designed for easy installation without any plumbing changes-Hi. [Read more]

Brand: Wayne

City Water Powered Emergency Back Up Sump Pump

City Water Powered Emergency Back Up Sump Pump

Features: -Back up sump pump-Powered by your city water-Does not require any electricity-Compact design- fits alongside primary sump pump-Includes check valve-Plastic construction-Made in the USA-Product Type: Sump Pump-Distressed: No-Material. [Read more]

Brand: Flotec

1/6 HP 115V 1-Speed Cast Iron Circulator Pump

1/6 HP 115V 1-Speed Cast Iron Circulator Pump

Features: -Recirculator pump-Wet rotor design-Composite impeller-Eliminates and prevents corrosive effects of fresh water-Maintenance-free, low energy consumption, easy to install, quiet running-Improved performance and efficiency-Pre-program usa. [Read more]

Brand: Grundfos

30000 PSI Pneumatic Hydrostatic Test Pump

30000 PSI Pneumatic Hydrostatic Test Pump

Features: -Made in the USA-Product Type: Test Pump-Finish: Red-Distressed: No-Powder Coated Finish: Yes-Number of Items Included: 1-Control Box Required: No-Hose Included: Yes-Castors Included: No-Power Source: Pneumatic-Shredder Impeller: No. [Read more]

Brand: Rice Hydro

Manual Hydrostatic Hand Test Pump

Manual Hydrostatic Hand Test Pump

Designed for testing small diameter water lines, in areas such as landscaping, plumbing, and residential. Unique dual check-valve system reduces water bleed-back and user fatigue. Features: -Shut off valve, and rubber grip handle-Less user fatigue, s. [Read more]

Brand: Rice Hydro

200 GPH Pond Jet Pond Pump

200 GPH Pond Jet Pond Pump

Features: -Pump-Protective outer shell to prevent debris from entering the pump-3 Tier fountain head-Flow control diverter-Telescopic riser-Magnetic driven motor-Product Type: Jet Pump-Finish: Black-Hardware Finish: Stainless steel-Distressed:. [Read more]

Brand: Koolatron

Sump Pump Check Valve

Sump Pump Check Valve

Features: -Check valve-Prevents water in discharge line from draining back in sump when pump is not running-Flapper type valve requires minimal unseat pressure-May be plumbed with accordion sump discharge hose, polyethylene PVC, or galvanized pipe. [Read more]

Brand: Pentair

340 GPH Pond Jet Pond Pump

340 GPH Pond Jet Pond Pump

Features: -Pump-Protective outer shell to prevent debris from entering the pump-3 Tier fountain head-Flow control diverter-Telescopic riser-Magnetic driven motor-Product Type: Jet Pump-Finish: Black-Hardware Finish: Stainless steel-Distressed:. [Read more]

Brand: Koolatron

Pumps-a-Lot Water Pump Kit

Pumps-a-Lot Water Pump Kit

Features: -Water pump kit-Utilizes water pressure to empty flooded areas-Moves up to 800 gallons per hour-Can lift water up to 180" depending on PSI with no priming-Made in the USA-Unique way to efficiently discharge unwanted water from pools, spa. [Read more]

Brand: Gtwaterproducts

1/2 HP Cast-Iron Transfer Utility Pump

1/2 HP Cast-Iron Transfer Utility Pump

Features: -Applications include drainage, dewatering flooded basements, emptying stock tanks, draining water heaters and charging polyglycol radiant heating lines-Boosts line pressure up to 40 PSI-Brass hose adapters connect to a standard garden hose. [Read more]

Brand: Wayne

1/4 HP Automatic Submersible Sump Pump

1/4 HP Automatic Submersible Sump Pump

Features: -Sump pump-Up to 21000 gallons per hour-Trouble-free mercury float switch-Installs in minutes-Fits all sumps-Fully automatic-1.25" Discharge-Fully submersible, corrosion-proof construction-Powerful less than 1/3 Hp motor-Product Type. [Read more]

Brand: Flotec

Mainstream Utility Sump Pump

Mainstream Utility Sump Pump

Features: -General purpose DE watering pump-Pumps 1440 gallons per hour through 1" outlet-Pumps 900 gallons per hour through 0.75" tubing-Pumps 1920 gallons per hour through 1.25" tubing-Product Type: Sump Pump-Distressed: No-Country of Manufa. [Read more]

Brand: Danner

158 GPM Semi Trash and Water Transfer Pump with Hose Kit

158 GPM Semi Trash and Water Transfer Pump with Hose Kit

Features: -Easy pull recoil start-Cast iron engine sleeve for durability-Low oil shut-off-Product Type: Transfer Pump-Finish: Black and yellow-Distressed: No-Powder Coated Finish: Yes-Gloss Finish: No-Material: Cast iron-Hardware Material: Sta. [Read more]

Brand: Champion Power Equipment

500 GPH Recirculating Water and Air Pump

500 GPH Recirculating Water and Air Pump

Features: -Circulator pump-In line or submersible operation-Energy efficient-0.5" FPT inlet-0.5" MPT outlet-500 GPH-Made in the USA-Product Type: Circulator Pump-Distressed: No-Material: Plastic-Power Source: Electric-Switch Type: Manual. Dim. [Read more]

Brand: Danner

59 GPM Submersible Residue Pump

59 GPM Submersible Residue Pump

The original sumpless sump pump by Tsurumi, this water pump is ideal for draining water and residue to ground level. Combining the power and durability Tsurumi has become known for, this pump provides a reliable and effective service for an affordable. [Read more]

Brand: Tsurumi

264 GPM Robin Engine Driven Centrifugal Pump with Low Oil Sensor

264 GPM Robin Engine Driven Centrifugal Pump with Low Oil Sensor

Robin engine driven water pump that provides power and reliability for any excess water situation. With durable and reliable materials, allows for wear and tear with minimum maintenance. This pump is both high powered and high quality serving as an af. [Read more]

Brand: Tsurumi

137 GPM Honda Engine Driven Centrifugal Pump with Low Oil Sensor

137 GPM Honda Engine Driven Centrifugal Pump with Low Oil Sensor

Combining the power of a Honda engine with the durability of Tsurumi parts, this water pump is both reliable and affordable.A heavy duty water pump at a light weight, it utilizes high quality materials to provide a toughness allowing for increased ver. [Read more]

Brand: Tsurumi

190 GPM Honda Engine Driven Trash Pump with Low Oil Sensor

190 GPM Honda Engine Driven Trash Pump with Low Oil Sensor

This Honda driven trash pump provides both the power and durability necessary to handle almost any situation. With strong and innovative design and materials this water pump provides a reliable solution to your excess liquids. Both lighweight as well a. [Read more]

Brand: Tsurumi

55 GPM Semi-Vortex Submersible Trash Pump with Agitator

55 GPM Semi-Vortex Submersible Trash Pump with Agitator

Tsurumi water pumps beefed up version of the HS2 model, this water pump offers both power and compact design. Ideal for pumping sand, solids, and debris with minimal wear and clogging. This water pump is reliable and worry free with its strong lasting. [Read more]

Brand: Tsurumi

Tsurumi Centrifugal Pump with Low Oil Sensor

Tsurumi Centrifugal Pump with Low Oil Sensor

TE-25HA is ideal for general dewatering on small applications. Whether used to irrigate or perform all purpose cleaning, you'll be impressed by the easy starting and quiet running features. Constructed for maximum durability, our dewatering pumps are. [Read more]

Brand: Tsurumi

2/3 HP Submersible Dewatering Pump with Float Switch

2/3 HP Submersible Dewatering Pump with Float Switch

This compact and durable submersible dewatering pump is perfect for taking care of low water levels whether it be in your home or at a construction site. This water pump packs a powerful punch in its small frame with strong materials and is easy to us. [Read more]

Brand: Tsurumi

PH Submersible Water Velocity V-Pump

PH Submersible Water Velocity V-Pump

Features: -Water pump-Uses no electricity-Move unwanted liquid and mud-Has no moving parts to lose, repair or replace-Capacity: 1200 Gallon-Pocket sized velocity pump and 2.5 horsepower electrical pump-Distressed: No-Engine Horsepower: 2 - 5 Hp. [Read more]

Brand: Cpa Pool Products

96.86 GPM Diesel Semi Trash Water Pump with Recoil Start

96.86 GPM Diesel Semi Trash Water Pump with Recoil Start

Features: -Water pump-Excellent fuel consumption-Recoil start-Air cooled-4 Cycle engine-Product Type: Effluent or Sewage Pump-Distressed: No-Powder Coated Finish: No-Gloss Finish: No-Material: Aluminum-Hardware Material: Iron-Material Casing. [Read more]

Brand: Amico

2" Trash Pump

2" Trash Pump

Features: -Trash pump-Honda engine-Low oil shutdown-Collection: Powermate-Distressed: No-Powder Coated Finish: No-Gloss Finish: No-Material: Other -Material Details: Steel-Impeller Materials: Cast iron-Tank Size: 0.83-Control Box Required: N. [Read more]

Brand: Powermate

65 GPH Magnetic-Drive Mini Pump

65 GPH Magnetic-Drive Mini Pump

Features: -Pond pump-Made to run continuously, without seals to wear out-Being filled with epoxy, not oil, they cannot leak into the pond-Suitable for table top fountains-Built in adjustable flow control-UL listed to US and Canadian safety standar. [Read more]

Brand: Danner

3.5 GPM Firehose Test Pump with Honda Engine

3.5 GPM Firehose Test Pump with Honda Engine

This pump is designed to safely test fire hose up to 6 inches in diameter. Four independently controlled outlets and a large 2 & 1/2" swivel inlet help to quickly fill and bleed lines for testing. Meets testing standards as set forth in the NFPA (1962. [Read more]

Brand: Rice Hydro

10000 PSI Pneumatic Hydrostatic Test Pump

10000 PSI Pneumatic Hydrostatic Test Pump

A versatile and compact test pump can operate from 300 to 10,000 PSI, and is designed for testing in small confined spaces or remote locations. Lightweight at only 42 lbs, this unit is easy to maneuver between test sites. Manufactured with the quality. [Read more]

Brand: Rice Hydro

32 GPM Hydrostatic Test Pump with Honda Engine

32 GPM Hydrostatic Test Pump with Honda Engine

This pump is designed to allow handling of up to a 10% chlorine solution. A large volume medium pressure unit, designed to quickly fill and test water lines up to 96" in diameter. Hydrostatic pumps work by filling your vessel or piping with highly pres. [Read more]

Brand: Rice Hydro

5 GPM High Pressure Hydrostatic Test Pump

5 GPM High Pressure Hydrostatic Test Pump

A large volume, high pressure hydrostatic pump. This model is designed for testing boilers, vessels, process piping, steam and gas lines. The ceramic plunger pump has an inner oil bath ensuring long life and increased stability. High flow mechanism qui. [Read more]

Brand: Rice Hydro

3 GPM Low Volume High Pressure Electric Hydrostatic Test Pump

3 GPM Low Volume High Pressure Electric Hydrostatic Test Pump

This electric pump is designed for testing sprinkler systems, irrigation lines, pressure vessels, plant process piping, and small diameter water lines. It features a triplex ceramic plunger with oil bath for long life with minimal maintenance. Hydrosta. [Read more]

Brand: Rice Hydro

3 GPM Hydrostatic Test Pump with Honda Engine

3 GPM Hydrostatic Test Pump with Honda Engine

This pump is designed for testing boilers, vessels, process piping, steam and gas lines. Complete with a Triplex ceramic Plunger Pump and a Honda engine. Hydrostatic pumps work by filling your vessel or piping with highly pressurized/non-explosive liqu. [Read more]

Brand: Rice Hydro

3.5 GPM Firehose Test Pump with Briggs and Stratton

3.5 GPM Firehose Test Pump with Briggs and Stratton

This pump is designed to safely test fire hose up to 6 inches in diameter. Four independently controlled outlets and a large 2 & 1/2" swivel inlet help to quickly fill and bleed lines for testing. Meets testing standards as set forth in the NFPA (1962. [Read more]

Brand: Rice Hydro

3 GPM Electric Firehose Test Pump

3 GPM Electric Firehose Test Pump

This pump is designed to safely test fire hose up to 6 inches in diameter. Four independently controlled outlets and a large 2 & 1/2" swivel inlet help to quickly fill and bleed lines for testing. Meets testing standards as set forth in the NFPA (1962. [Read more]

Brand: Rice Hydro

4 GPM Electric Firehose Test Pump

4 GPM Electric Firehose Test Pump

This pump is designed to safely test fire hose up to 6 inches in diameter. Four independently controlled outlets and a large 2 & 1/2" swivel inlet help to quickly fill and bleed lines for testing. Meets testing standards as set forth in the NFPA (1962. [Read more]

Brand: Rice Hydro

5 GPM Firehose Test Pump with Briggs and Stratton

5 GPM Firehose Test Pump with Briggs and Stratton

This pump is designed to safely test fire hose up to 6 inches in diameter. Four independently controlled outlets and a large 2 & 1/2" swivel inlet help to quickly fill and bleed lines for testing. Meets testing standards as set forth in the NFPA (1962. [Read more]

Brand: Rice Hydro

190 GPH Danner Statuary Pump Clamshell Pack

190 GPH Danner Statuary Pump Clamshell Pack

Features: -Statuary pump clamshell pack-190 gallons per hour pump-0.25" threaded outlet-Seven foot shut off, ceramic shaft-Grounded power cord-Includes an elbow for 0.38" or 0.5" I.D. tubing-Includes an 120" long cord-Made in the USA-Collection. [Read more]

Brand: E G Danner

Danner Promotional 190 GAL Pump and Fountain Kit

Danner Promotional 190 GAL Pump and Fountain Kit

Features: -Danner promotional 190 GAL pump and fountain kit-190 Gallon per hour pump-For small barrels and tubs-Includes a long cord, bell pattern fountain head, and block foam filter-Made in the USA-Product Type: Fountain Pump-Finish: Black-Dis. [Read more]

Brand: E G Danner

500 GPH Danner Pondmaster Pump with 18' Cord

500 GPH Danner Pondmaster Pump with 18' Cord

Features: -Danner pond master 500GPH pump with 216" cord-Suitable for medium garden fountains, piped statuary and ponds-500 GPH maximum flow with a 1.5 shut-off-Ceramic Shaft-Packed six per master-Foam pre-filter included-Collection: Pondmaster M. [Read more]

Brand: E G Danner

1200 GPH Danner Pondmaster Pump with 18' Cord

1200 GPH Danner Pondmaster Pump with 18' Cord

Features: -Pond master 1200GPH pump with cord-Made to run continuously without seals to wear out-Filled with epoxy instead of oil-Made in the USA-Collection: Pondmaster Magnetic-Drive Utility Pumps-Product Type: Pond Pump-Finish: Black-Distresse. [Read more]

Brand: E G Danner

6000 GPH Danner Proline HY Drive Waterfall Pump

6000 GPH Danner Proline HY Drive Waterfall Pump

Features: -Powerful efficient hybrid magnetic/direct drive motor-Extremely low energy use-Whisper quiet operation-Specifically designed for use with skimmers and waterfalls-Fish safe because no oil is used-Stainless Steel and plastic-Made in the. [Read more]

Brand: E G Danner

4800 GPH Danner HY Drive Pump for Water Falls and Streams

4800 GPH Danner HY Drive Pump for Water Falls and Streams

Features: -Pump for waterfalls and streams-4800 gallons per hour pump-Submersible/inline pump for water gardens and ponds-Unique, high capacity pump designed specifically for use in larger pond installations-Combines the benefits of magnetic and di. [Read more]

Brand: E G Danner

3200 GPH Danner HY Drive Pump for Water Falls and Streams

3200 GPH Danner HY Drive Pump for Water Falls and Streams

Features: -Pump for waterfalls and streams-3200 gallons per hour pump-Submersible/inline pump for water gardens and ponds-Unique, high capacity pump designed specifically for use in larger pond installations-Combines the benefits of magnetic and di. [Read more]

Brand: E G Danner

1/2 HP 2-Wire Deep Well Submersible Pump

1/2 HP 2-Wire Deep Well Submersible Pump

Features: -Deep well submersible pump-Material: Stainless steel-For wells 20 to 120 feet in depth-High efficiency, hermetically sealed motor for long life-Motor enclosure, pump shell and fasteners-Engine HP: 1/2-Single-phase-Submersible design f. [Read more]

Brand: Wayne

1/4 HP Submersible Non-Clogging Vortex Utility Pump

1/4 HP Submersible Non-Clogging Vortex Utility Pump

Features: -Non-clogging reinforced thermoplastic submersible utility pump-Corrosion-resistant reinforced thermoplastic housing, volute and impeller-Bottom suction design filters debris and removes water down to a quarter inch of surface-Passes up to. [Read more]

Brand: Wayne

GPH 3750 Waterfall Pump

GPH 3750 Waterfall Pump

Features: -Fountain pump-Non toxic-Energy efficient-Quiet operation-Product Type: Fountain Pump-Distressed: No-Power Source: Electric-Switch Type: Automatic. Dimensions: -Overall Height - Top to Bottom: 7.5-Overall Width - Side to Side: 6.37-Ov. [Read more]

Brand: Geoglobal Partners

1/12 HP 115V Recirculator Pump

1/12 HP 115V Recirculator Pump

Features: -Recirculator pump-Material: Stainless steel-UP series pumps are specifically designed for heating systems-Suitable for circulation of hot domestic water and for circulation of liquid in cooling and air-conditioning systems-Quick connect. [Read more]

Brand: Grundfos

Water Pump

Water Pump

Lightweight water pump with the power need. Features: -Water pump. -General purpose pump. -Cast iron impeller. -Lightweight aluminum pump housing. -Silicone carbide mechanical seal. -Includes 3" diameter hose system. -Manufacturer provides 90 day. [Read more]

Brand: Earthquake

14 CFM Silent 300 Grout Pump

14 CFM Silent 300 Grout Pump

Big brother of the Small 50, this pump has it all! A 20 HP Diesel Lombardini engine provides steady power to the hydraulics that harness this multi-use pump. Equipped with a hydraulic mixer, hydraulically driven air compressor and 2000 PSI pressure wa. [Read more]

Brand: Imer

3/4 HP, 3-Wire Stainless Steel Deep Well Submersible Pump

3/4 HP, 3-Wire Stainless Steel Deep Well Submersible Pump

Features: -Deep well submersible pump-Material: Stainless steel-For wells 20 to 175 feet in depth-High efficiency, hermetically sealed motor for long life-Motor enclosure, pump shell and fasteners-Requires control box (not included)-Engine HP: 3/. [Read more]

Brand: Wayne

60 GPM Clear Water Pond Pump

60 GPM Clear Water Pond Pump

PondBuilder Clear Water pumps are energy efficient, high volume, direct drive upright submersible pumps. Features: -Used for low head applications-Designed for continuous use-Water cooled so no oil can leak into the pond-Durable and reliable-Made. [Read more]

Brand: Pond Builder

200 GPH Statuary Pump

200 GPH Statuary Pump

Features: -Fountain pump-Magnetic drive-Variable flow control-For submersible use-Grounded plug-Product Type: Fountain Pump-Distressed: No-Portable: Yes. Dimensions: -Overall Height - Top to Bottom: 7.5-Overall Width - Side to Side: 4.25-Overal. [Read more]

Brand: Danner

1/6 HP Oil-Free Thermoplastic Submersible Utility Pump

1/6 HP Oil-Free Thermoplastic Submersible Utility Pump

Features: -Submersible thermoplastic utility pump-Corrosion-resistant reinforced thermoplastic housing, volute and impeller-Bottom suction design filters and removes water down to 0.38-inch of surface-Continuous-duty pump you can take anywhere-Oil. [Read more]

Brand: Wayne

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Figura 8. Medición correcta de la elevación estática con respecto a la operación de la bomba. La elevación estática se mide desde la superficie del suministro de agua al punto central de la abertura de entrada de la bomba.

Hidrostática

La rama de la hidráulica que trata con la presión y el equilibrio del agua (en reposo) y otros líquidos es conocida como hidrostática. El agua es el líquido considerado con mas frecuencia en el estudio de los principios básicos de la hidráulica, pero otros líquidos están también incluidos.

Altura de carga estática

La altura por encima de un punto dado de una columna o cuerpo de agua en reposo (el peso de del agua que causa la presión) se denomina altura de carga estática o presión estática (static head en Inglés).

Con respecto a la operación de la bomba, la altura de carga se mide desde el punto central de la conexión de salida de la bomba (vea la Figura 7).

En la mayoría de los cálculos, es una práctica común estimar la presión por pie de la altura de carga en 0,5 psi. El valor correcto para el cálculo de la presión de agua por pie de altura de carga estática es 0,43302 psi. Este valor es preciso para una temperatura del agua a 62 ºF.

Elevación estática

La altura a la que la presión atmosférica hace que una columna de agua se eleve por encima de la fuente de suministro para restaurar el equilibrio se denomina elevación estática (vea la Figura 8). El peso de la columna de agua (1 pulgada cuadrada de área de sección transversal) requerida para restaurar el equilibrio es igual a la presión ejercida por la atmósfera (psi).

La presión de la atmósfera puede estar disponible para levantar agua desde la fuente de suministro a una bomba de elevada mediante la eliminación del aire de la entrada de la bomba (véase la figura 9). En el diagrama de la izquierda, el tubo de entrada (antes de la conexión con la bomba) presiona hacia abajo sobre la superficie del agua con la misma presión (psi) tanto por dentro como fuera de la cañería, debido a que el tubo está abierto en la parte superior.

Figura 9.  Método para hacer que la presión atmosférica esté disponible para la elevación de agua desde la fuente hasta una bomba de elevada.

Si el extremo de la tubería está conectado a una bomba que extrae el aire de la tubería para crear un vacío parcial, el agua sube a una altura A (véase figura 9) que está determinada por la presión atmosférica disponible.

Cuando el barómetro indica 30 pulgadas (76,20 centímetros) de mercurio a nivel del mar, la presión atmosférica a nivel del mar es de 14,74 psi, que es la presión atmosférica  que puede mantener o equilibrar una columna de 34,042 pies (1.037,60 centímetros) de agua, si la columna está totalmente desprovista de aire y la temperatura del agua es de 62 ºF (16,67 ºC). Por lo tanto, la presión atmosférica eleva el agua a una altura que establece el equilibrio entre el peso del agua y la presión de la atmósfera.

Cuando la temperatura del agua esta más caliente que 62 ºF (16,67 ºC), la altura a la que el agua puede ser levantada disminuye debido a la mayor presión de vapor. Una bomba de alimentación de caldera tomando agua a 153 ºF (67,22 ºC), por ejemplo, no puede producir un vacío superior a 21,78 pulgadas  (55,32 centímetros), porque el agua comienza a hervir en ese punto y llena la cámara de la bomba con vapor. Por lo tanto, la elevación teórica es:

El resultado es aproximado ya que no se hace corrección para la columna de agua de 34 pies (10,36 metros) a 62 ºF  (16,67 ºC). En 153 ºF (67,22 ºC), por supuesto, la longitud de la columna se incrementa ligeramente.

Figura 10. La elevación máxima de agua a la temperatura estándar (62 ◦ F) cuando la presión barométrica es de 30 pulgadas (izquierda) y 24 pulgadas (derecha).

La altura máxima a la que el agua a temperatura estándar (62 ºF  ó 16,67 ºC) puede ser levantada se determina por la presión barométrica. Como se muestra en la figura 10, el agua se eleva a una altura de 34,1 pies  (1.039,37 centímetros) cuando la presión barométrica es de 30 pulgadas  (76,20 centímetros), y se eleva a 27,28 pies (831,49 centímetros) cuando la presión barométrica es de 24 pulgadas (60,96 centímetros) (utilizando 0,49116 psi  y 2,30947 pies ó 70,39 centímetros a la cabeza del agua para cada psi).

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