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Principios de Hidráulica

Hidráulica : Descripción funcional de las bombas hidráulicas.

Una comprensión de la es necesaria antes de que los principios básicos de los diversos tipos de bombas puedan ser entendidos. La hidráulica es la rama de la física que se ocupa de las propiedades mecánicas del agua y otros líquidos, y con la aplicación de estas propiedades en la ingeniería.

Mientras la hidráulica entró en prominencia en el último medio siglo, no es una ciencia nueva. Blaise Pascal, un científico francés en el siglo XVII, desarrolló la ley fundamental de la ciencia de la hidráulica.

Pero la incapacidad para producir materiales de sellado satisfactorios, acabados mecanizados, y piezas mecanizadas limitó el crecimiento de la hidráulica antes de la primera parte del siglo XX.

Principios básicos

Como se explica en otras páginas, el agua es una sustancia verdaderamente notable. En su máxima densidad (39,1 ºF), el agua se expande cuando se aplica calor. También se expande ligeramente cuando la temperatura disminuye desde ese punto. Bajo la influencia de la temperatura y la presión, el agua puede existir como un sólido (hielo), un líquido (agua), y un gas (vapor).

La presión ejercida por un líquido sobre una superficie es proporcional al área de la superficie. La figura 1 muestra el principio hidráulico. Dos cilindros de diferentes diámetros están unidos por un tubo y se llenan de agua. Si el área M del pistón más grande, por ejemplo, es 30 veces el área de la superficie S de pistón más pequeño, y un peso de 2 libras es colocado en el pistón más pequeño, la presión se transmite al agua y al pistón más grande. Esa presión es igual a 2 libras por cada porción de la superficie del pistón más grande, que es igual en área a la suma del área de la superficie del pistón más pequeño. El pistón más grande está expuesto a una presión hacia arriba igual a 30 veces la del pistón más pequeño, o sea 60 libras. Además, si un peso 60-libras se coloca en el pistón mayor, los dos pistones permanecen en equilibrio. Este equilibrio es destruido en caso de que un mayor o un menor peso sea aplicado.

Una pequeña cantidad de agua logra equilibrar un peso mucho mayor. Como se muestra en la Figura 2, una locomotora que pesa 101.790 libras puede ser equilibrada en un elevador hidráulico contra una cantidad menor de agua, suponiendo que no hay fugas ni fricción, y que el tubo vertical que conduce al cilindro de émbolo sea excesivamente pequeño en diámetro. Por ejemplo, si el área del émbolo requiere 100 psi de presión en el émbolo para equilibrar la locomotora 101.790 libras, la carga es equilibrada cuando el tubo sea llenado de agua hasta una altura de 231 pies (100 x 2,31).

Figura 1. El principio hidráulico de que la presión ejercida por un líquido sobre una superficie es proporcional al área de la superficie.

Figura 2 El principio de que una menor cantidad de agua puede ser usada para equilibrar un peso mucho mayor.

La presión en cualquier parte de un fluido que tiene una densidad uniforme es proporcional a su profundidad por debajo de la superficie (véase la figura 3). Como se ilustra en la Figura 4, una pesa de 1 libra colocada sobre una escala, totaliza 11 libras, lo que da un peso total o  presión de 11 psi si se ubica sobre una pulgada cuadrada de superficie. Del mismo modo, una columna de agua de 1 pulgada cuadrada de sección transversal y 2,31 pies de altura pesa 1 libra (vea la Figura 4). Un manómetro colocado en la parte inferior de la columna  que sea de 4,62 pies (2,31 x 2), de altura indica una presión de 2 psi. Por lo tanto, la presión de agua a cualquier profundidad es igual a:

 

Figura 3. El principio de que la presión en cualquier porción de un líquido que tenga densidad uniforme es proporcional a su profundidad por debajo de la superficie.

Figura 4. El principio de que la presión de agua en cualquier punto por debajo la superficie es proporcional a la profundidad del punto debajo de la superficie. Se ilustra la presión en psi (izquierda), y se muestra la relación entre la presión del agua en cualquier punto por debajo de la superficie y la profundidad en pies (derecha).

Figura 5. Los fluidos suben hasta el mismo nivel en cada brazo de un tubo en U cuando la temperatura del líquido es la misma en cada brazo (izquierda), y se elevan a niveles diferentes cuando la temperatura es diferente en cada brazo (derecha).

Como se muestra en la Figura 5, los fluidos se elevan hasta el mismo nivel en cada brazo de un tubo en U cuando la temperatura del líquido es la misma en cada brazo. Sin embargo, los fluidos se elevan a niveles diferentes cuando la temperatura es diferente en cada brazo (derecha).

Las consideraciones principales en hidráulica son altura de carga y la elevación. La altura de carga es la profundidad del agua en un recipiente, tubería o conducto, que es una medida de la presión en cualquier punto debajo de la superficie. El término altura de carga (head en Inglés) indica la diferencia en el nivel de agua entre dos puntos. Por lo general se expresa en pies. Los dos tipos de alturas de carga son carga estática y carga dinámica (véase la Figura 6).

En la elevación, o altura de alzamiento, es la altura a la que la presión atmosférica fuerza o eleva al agua por encima de la elevación de su fuente de suministro. Con respecto a la operación de la bomba, la altura, medida desde la elevación de la fuente de suministro hasta el punto central de la abertura de entrada de la bomba se denomina elevación (véase la Figura 7 y Figura 8). Los dos tipos de elevación son elevación estática y elevación dinámica.

Figura 6. Altura de carga dinámica y estática.

Figura 7. Puntos correctos de medición de altura de carga y elevación.

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506 GPM Commercial Trash Pump

506 GPM Commercial Trash Pump

$1,767.96  $1,547.00

Features: -Trash pump-506 GPM-Quiet and reliable-Cast iron pump casing lined with stainless steel and long life silicon carbide mechanical seal resists corrosion, wear and heat-Product Type: Effluent or Sewage Pump-Distressed: No-Material: Cast i. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

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1/3 HP Cast-Iron Pedestal Pump

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$166.00

Features: -Cast-iron pedestal pump-Adjustable vertical float switch allows for easy changes in operating cycle to fit application-Top suction design filters debris and prevents clogging-Designed for easy installation without any plumbing changes-Hi. [Read more]

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6/10 HP Manual Operation Cast-Iron Heavy Duty Sewage Pump

6/10 HP Manual Operation Cast-Iron Heavy Duty Sewage Pump

$353.31  $287.00

Features: -Cast-iron submersible sewage pump-Manual operation-Capable of handling up to 2-inch solids-Designed for easy installation without any plumbing changes-Easy carry ring for portability-Lower ball bearings for long life and quiet operation. [Read more]

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158 GPM Semi Trash and Water Transfer Pump with Hose Kit

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$440.00  $303.00

Features: -Easy pull recoil start-Cast iron engine sleeve for durability-Low oil shut-off-Product Type: Transfer Pump-Finish: Black and yellow-Distressed: No-Powder Coated Finish: Yes-Gloss Finish: No-Material: Cast iron -Material Details: -H. [Read more]

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20000 PSI Pneumatic Hydrostatic Test Pump

20000 PSI Pneumatic Hydrostatic Test Pump

$7,300.00  $5,698.03

Features: -Made in the USA-Product Type: Test Pump-Finish: Red-Distressed: No-Powder Coated Finish: Yes-Number of Items Included: 1-Pieces Included: -Control Box Required: No -Control Box Included: -Hose Included: Yes-Castors Included: No -Nu. [Read more]

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1 HP Portable Stainless Steel Lawn Sprinkling Pump

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$204.99  $175.47

Features: -Portable lawn sprinkling pump-Material: Stainless steel-Maintains pressure up to 80 PSI-Easy carry handle for portability-Engine HP: 1-Pumps up to 12 GPM at 0 feet-Single-phase-Garden hose adapter included-Product Type: Fountain Pump. [Read more]

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95 GPM Submersible Trash Pumps with Single Phase Motor

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$2,416.00  $1,167.00

Features: -95 GPM Submersible Trash Pumps with Single Phase Motor-Corrosion free stainless steel hardware-UL or CSA approved-Item # ST2010TCUL-Impeller Type: Cast-Ductile-Iron-Impeller Disc Size: 2"-Total Head: 45'-Water Capacity: 95 gpm-Max. . [Read more]

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Brand: Multiquip

2 HP Manual Operation Cast-Iron Heavy Duty Commercial Sewage Pump

2 HP Manual Operation Cast-Iron Heavy Duty Commercial Sewage Pump

$983.86  $887.00

Features: -Commercial-grade cast-iron submersible sewage pump-Manual operation-Capable of handling 2-inch solids-Designed for easy installation without any plumbing changes-Easy carry ring for portability-Upper and lower ball bearings for quiet op. [Read more]

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Brand: Wayne

60 GPM Submersible Clean Water Pump with Single Phase Motor

60 GPM Submersible Clean Water Pump with Single Phase Motor

$500.00  $210.07

Features: -60 GPM Submersible Clean Water Pump with Single Phase Motor-Multiquip's lightweight, compact submersible pumps are the first choice for household dewatering applications such as basements and swimming pools-Built-in overload protection pro. [Read more]

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4500 GPH Max Flo 16000 Waterfall Pump

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$259.99  $142.00

Features: -Includes filter grid to protect motor from large debris-Waterfall pump-4500 GPH-Can be positioned vertically or horizontally for various pond configurations-Energy efficient magnet-driven-UL approved-Maintenance free pumps-Barbed fitt. [Read more]

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2" Trash Pump - Honda GX160

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$1,212.92  $1,097.00

Features: -Trash pump-Honda engine-Low oil shutdown-Collection: Powermate-Distressed: No-Powder Coated Finish: No-Gloss Finish: No-Material: Other -Material Details: Steel-Impeller Materials: Cast iron -Impeller Materials Details: -Tank Size. [Read more]

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10000 PSI Pneumatic Hydrostatic Test Pump

10000 PSI Pneumatic Hydrostatic Test Pump

$5,169.77  $2,899.99

A versatile and compact test pump can operate from 300 to 10,000 PSI, and is designed for testing in small confined spaces or remote locations. Lightweight at only 42 lbs, this unit is easy to maneuver between test sites. Manufactured with the quality. [Read more]

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5 GPM High Pressure Hydrostatic Test Pump

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$11,930.23  $6,941.53

A large volume, high pressure hydrostatic pump. This model is designed for testing boilers, vessels, process piping, steam and gas lines. The ceramic plunger pump has an inner oil bath ensuring long life and increased stability. High flow mechanism qui. [Read more]

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1/2 HP, 2-Wire Stainless Steel Deep Well Submersible Pump

1/2 HP, 2-Wire Stainless Steel Deep Well Submersible Pump

$423.78  $330.95

Features: -Deep well submersible pump-Material: Stainless steel-For wells 20 to 120 feet in depth-High efficiency, hermetically sealed motor for long life-Motor enclosure, pump shell and fasteners-Engine HP: 1/2-Single-phase-Submersible design f. [Read more]

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Brand: Wayne

PH Submersible Water Velocity V-Pump

PH Submersible Water Velocity V-Pump

$59.50  $52.00

Features: -Water pump-Uses no electricity-Move unwanted liquid and mud-Has no moving parts to lose, repair or replace-Capacity: 1200 Gallon-Pocket sized velocity pump and 2.5 horsepower electrical pump-Distressed: No-Engine Horsepower: 2 - 5 Hp. [Read more]

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65 GPH Power Head TT Pump

65 GPH Power Head TT Pump

$41.50  $40.90

The Power Head pumps feature flow control, an oil free magnetic design, are epoxy protected and have ceramic impeller shafts for long life. These reliable and quiet submersible water pumps will give you a cost-saving, energy-efficient operation. Featu. [Read more]

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Brand: Alpine

190 GPH Danner Mag Drive Model 1.9 Statuary Pump with10" Crod

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$82.50

Features: -Danner mag drive model 1.9 190GPH statuary pump with cord-Used in a horizontal or vertical position-Adjustable flow control-Ceramic shaft, foam pre filter, elbow, grounded power cord-For small to medium sized garden fountains-Made in th. [Read more]

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137 GPM Honda Engine Driven Centrifugal Pump with Low Oil Sensor

137 GPM Honda Engine Driven Centrifugal Pump with Low Oil Sensor

$743.00  $632.00

Combining the power of a Honda engine with the durability of Tsurumi parts, this water pump is both reliable and affordable.A heavy duty water pump at a light weight, it utilizes high quality materials to provide a toughness allowing for increased ver. [Read more]

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Gas Pump Liquor Dispenser

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$41.30

Adorn your counter or bar top with the gas pump liquor dispenser by Godinger. Whether entertaining guests for a summer soiree or birthday celebration, this piece was designed with style and functionality in mind and will undoubtedly bring classic char. [Read more]

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1/2 HP Thermoplastic Pedestal Pump

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$179.45  $135.00

Features: -Thermoplastic pedestal pump-Adjustable vertical float switch allows for easy changes in operating cycle to fit application-Top suction design filters debris and prevents clogging-Designed for easy installation without any plumbing changes. [Read more]

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48 GPM Tether Float Switch Thermoplastic Sump Pump

48 GPM Tether Float Switch Thermoplastic Sump Pump

$145.01  $124.00

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427 GPM Water Pump

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$644.61  $488.00

Features: -Water pump-4" Intake and Outlet with back flow check valve-Durable 9 Horse Power Engine (EPA and CARB Approved)-427 Gallons per minute-Pump overhead lift-2.4 Hour run time per tank-Construction Material: stainless steel-Product Type:. [Read more]

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$112.50  $95.00

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1/3 HP Tether Float Switch Cast-Iron Sump Pump

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$154.01  $121.00

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87 GPM Electric Submersible Clean Water Pump with Single-Phase Motors

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$1,260.00  $519.65

Features: -Electric Submersible Clean Water Pump with Single-Phase Motors-It's portable, lightweight and reliable-Has improved impeller wear making it the perfect choice for applications with sandy water and higher heads-Double mechanical oil filled. [Read more]

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158 GPM Commercial Water Transfer Pump Engine: Powerease

158 GPM Commercial Water Transfer Pump Engine: Powerease

$549.00  $246.62

Features: -Water transfer pump-Recoil start and low oil alert-Built to move large volumes of water-Product Type: Transfer Pump-Distressed: No-Material: Aluminum -Material Details: -Material Casing: Aluminum -Material Casing Details: -Impeller. [Read more]

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158 GPM Honda GX - 120 Centrifugal Pump

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$1,312.00  $595.00

Features: -158 GPM Honda GX - 120 Centrifugal Pump-Designed to handle all types of clear water applications-Uses an overhead valve for peak performance while minimizing fuel consumption-Cast ductile iron impeller and volute for long-lasting performa. [Read more]

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111 GPM Submersible Dewatering Pump

111 GPM Submersible Dewatering Pump

$2,011.00  $1,709.00

Heavy duty water pump capable of handling abrasive materials. High head pump with durable materials allowing minimal wear for maximum use. The next step in water pump power, offers maximum output with compact and reliable design. Features: -Semi-vorte. [Read more]

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1/6 HP 115V 1-Speed Cast Iron Circulator Pump

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$576.00  $302.99

Features: -Recirculator pump-Cast iron circulator with high flow, medium head characteristics-Wet rotor design-Composite impeller-Eliminates and prevents the corrosive effects of fresh water-Maintenance-free, low energy consumption, easy to instal. [Read more]

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1 HP, 3-Wire Stainless Steel Deep Well Submersible Pump

1 HP, 3-Wire Stainless Steel Deep Well Submersible Pump

$533.33  $425.00

Features: -Deep well submersible pump-Material: Stainless steel-For wells 20 to 300 feet in depth-High efficiency, hermetically sealed motor for long life-Motor enclosure, pump shell and fasteners-Requires control box (not included)-Engine HP: 1. [Read more]

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Brand: Wayne

1.5 GPM Low Volume High Pressure Electric Hydrostatic Test Pump

1.5 GPM Low Volume High Pressure Electric Hydrostatic Test Pump

$3,048.84  $1,728.54

This electric pump is designed for testing sprinkler systems, irrigation lines, pressure vessels, plant process piping, and small diameter water lines. It features a triplex ceramic plunger with oil bath for long life with minimal maintenance. Hydrosta. [Read more]

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Brand: Rice Hydro

93 GPH Statuary Pump

93 GPH Statuary Pump

$23.23  $21.04

Features: -Fountain pump-Magnetic drive-Variable flow control-For submersible use-Grounded plug-Product Type: Fountain Pump-Distressed: No-Portable: Yes. Dimensions: -Overall Height - Top to Bottom: 7.5-Overall Width - Side to Side: 4.25-Overal. [Read more]

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Brand: Danner

6 GPM Hydrostatic Test Water Pump

6 GPM Hydrostatic Test Water Pump

$3,976.74  $2,513.90

This mid volume, medium pressure hydrostatic pump is designed for testing lines up to 16 inches in diameter. If receiving exact information is important to you, then the Rice Hydro DE-3C is just what you've been searching for. Also comes equipped with. [Read more]

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1/3 HP Plastic Sump Pump

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$135.00  $116.67

Features: -Sump pump-Pumps to 2760 GPH-Engine HP: Less than 1/3-Plastic construction-Product Type: Sump Pump-Distressed: No-Material: Plastic -Material Details: -Power Source: Electric-Engine Horsepower: Less than 1/3 Hp-Switch Type: Mechanic. [Read more]

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Brand: Flotec

85 GPM Diaphragm Pump

85 GPM Diaphragm Pump

$4,482.00  $1,945.00

Features: -Diaphragm Pump-Our diaphragm pumps have proven themselves over decades with dependable performance and minimal maintenance-Excels in applications with high solid contents and seepage-Easily switches from inline to transverse flow-Positiv. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

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1/3 HP Automatic Submersible Effluent Pump

1/3 HP Automatic Submersible Effluent Pump

$299.99  $192.00

Features: -Effluent pump-Engine HP: 1/3-Plastic construction-Ideal for basement installations, laundry facilities, underground parking, grain storage and construction sites-Made in the USA-Product Type: Effluent or Sewage Pump-Distressed: No-Mat. [Read more]

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Brand: Flotec

1500 PSI Manual Hydrostatic Hand Test Pump

1500 PSI Manual Hydrostatic Hand Test Pump

$243.08

Designed for testing small diameter water lines, in areas such as landscaping, plumbing, and residential. Unique dual check-valve system reduces water bleed-back and user fatigue. Features: -Shut off valve, and rubber grip handle-Less user fatigue, s. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Rice Hydro

6 1/2" Siphon Pump

6 1/2" Siphon Pump

$14.72  $11.17

Features: -Hand pump-Gas and oil resistant-Carded-Heavy-duty construction-Product Type: Hand Pump-Distressed: No-Power Source: Gas. Dimensions: -Overall Height - Top to Bottom: 9.5-Overall Width - Side to Side: 5.5-Overall Depth - Front to Back:. [Read more]

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60 GPM Electric Submersible Clean Water Pump with Single-Phase Motors

60 GPM Electric Submersible Clean Water Pump with Single-Phase Motors

$1,010.00  $443.00

Features: -Electric Submersible Clean Water Pump with Single-Phase Motors-Most submersible pumps will leave 1-2" of water as a minimum draw-Can be impractical when faced with a large surface area to pump out-Automatic thermo overload protection-Ha. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

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4 GPM High Pressure Hydrostatic Test Pump

4 GPM High Pressure Hydrostatic Test Pump

$5,037.21  $3,048.34

A large volume, high pressure hydrostatic pump. This model is designed for testing boilers, vessels, process piping, steam and gas lines. The ceramic plunger pump has an inner oil bath ensuring long life and increased stability. High flow mechanism qui. [Read more]

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120V / 60HZ Electric Water Pump for Tile and Brick Saws

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$95.00

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96.86 GPM Diesel Semi Trash Water Pump with Recoil Start

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$737.34  $607.00

Features: -Water pump-Excellent fuel consumption-Recoil start-Air cooled-4 Cycle engine-Product Type: Effluent or Sewage Pump-Finish: Black; Red-Distressed: No-Powder Coated Finish: No-Gloss Finish: No-Material: Aluminum -Material Details: . [Read more]

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Electric Water Pump

Electric Water Pump

$173.00  $164.99

Features: -Electric water pumps-For MK-5000 series electric saws, MK 5000 series brick and block saws-Made in the USA-Product Type: Pond Pump-Distressed: No-Power Source: Electric-Starting System: Electric-Country of Manufacture: United States.S. [Read more]

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Hydraulic Shoring Pump with Pneumatic

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$6,151.81  $4,074.91

Lightweight and easy to maneuver, this gas powered hydraulic shoring pressure pump is capable of pressures up to 2,000 PSI, and includes a bypass relief. Features: -Gas powered hydraulic shoring pump-Compact vertical design-Bypass relief-Max PSI: 2. [Read more]

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Brand: Rice Hydro

300 PSI Hydrostatic Test Water Pump with 5.0 HP Honda Engine

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$4,606.81  $2,369.99

Features: -Water pump-Automatic pressure regulator with inlet bypass-Made in the USA-Output flow: 5 GPM-Maximum Pressure: 300 PSI-Heavy gauge steel roll cage-Product Type: Test Pump-Finish: Red-Distressed: No-Powder Coated Finish: Yes-Number. [Read more]

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127 GPM Hi-Pressure Pump

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$878.39

Features: -Easy start-Very low noise-Compact and lightweight-Product Type: Utility Pump-Finish: Yellow and black-Distressed: No-Material Casing: Aluminum -Material Casing Details: -Material Shaft: Cast iron -Material Shaft Details: -Impeller. [Read more]

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Brand: Subaru

3/4 HP, 2-Wire Stainless Steel Deep Well Submersible Pump

3/4 HP, 2-Wire Stainless Steel Deep Well Submersible Pump

$488.33  $396.00

Features: -Deep well submersible pump-Material: Stainless steel-For wells 20 to 175 feet in depth-High efficiency, hermetically sealed motor for long life-Motor enclosure, pump shell and fasteners-Engine HP: 3/4-Single-phase-Submersible design f. [Read more]

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Brand: Wayne

550 PSI Triple Diaphragm Hydrostatic Test Water Pump with 5.5 HP Honda Engine

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$4,875.50  $2,662.57

This pump is recognized as the most saught-after large volume hydrostatic test pump on the market. Features: -Water pump-Inlet hose with stainless steel mesh filter-Made in the USA-Flow Rate: 11 GPM-Maximum Pressure: 550 PSI-Product Type: Test Pu. [Read more]

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Brand: Rice Hydro

96.86 GPM Diesel Semi Trash Water Pump with Electric/Recoil Start

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$805.97  $625.00

Features: -Water pump-Electric and recoil start-Excellent fuel consumption-4 Cycle engine-Air cooled-Product Type: Effluent or Sewage Pump-Finish: Black; Red-Distressed: No-Powder Coated Finish: No-Gloss Finish: No-Material: Aluminum -Materia. [Read more]

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Brand: Amico

208 GPM 2" Trash/Water Pump with 5.5 HP Engine

208 GPM 2" Trash/Water Pump with 5.5 HP Engine

$299.00  $252.22

This trash/water pump is capable of de-watering up to 9,000 gallons per hour. Dependable and quiet, the TWPUMP can be easily transported. weighing only 62 lbs, this is a great product for the price. This trash/water pump can bail you out when you nee. [Read more]

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Brand: Buffalo Tools

1-1/2 HP Self Priming High Capacity Sprinkler Pump

1-1/2 HP Self Priming High Capacity Sprinkler Pump

$415.20  $262.09

Features: -Pond pump-Ideal for lawn sprinkling applications-Capable of operating up to 30 sprinkler heads-Self-priming design permits use on automatic sprinkler systems and also for de-watering, and water transfer-Motors have stainless steel shaft. [Read more]

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Brand: Flotec

100 GPH PT320 Powerjet Fountain Pump Kit

100 GPH PT320 Powerjet Fountain Pump Kit

$75.37  $75.16

Features: -Fountain pump-Material: Plastic ceramic magnet-High performance, foam-free strainer cage technology for less maintenance-Extremely energy efficient pump-Complete kit with multiple fountain heads and hose connectors-100 GPH-Collection: . [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Laguna Waterworks

1/6 HP Tempest Utility Submersible Pump

1/6 HP Tempest Utility Submersible Pump

$118.16  $85.94

Features: -Submersible pump-Pumps 1500 gallons per hour-Pump requires a minimum water depth of 0.5" for start-up-Pumps down to within 0.19" of the pump base-For sump-less cellar draining-Pump out window wells-Drain low spots-1" Discharge-Powere. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Flotec

30000 PSI Pneumatic Hydrostatic Test Pump

30000 PSI Pneumatic Hydrostatic Test Pump

$7,285.11  $6,744.76

Features: -Made in the USA-Product Type: Test Pump-Finish: Red-Distressed: No-Powder Coated Finish: Yes-Number of Items Included: 1-Pieces Included: -Control Box Required: No -Control Box Included: -Hose Included: Yes-Castors Included: No -Nu. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Rice Hydro

3/4 HP Cast-Iron Lawn Sprinkling Pump

3/4 HP Cast-Iron Lawn Sprinkling Pump

$287.49  $239.00

Features: -Cast-iron lawn sprinkling pump-Material: Durable Cast-iron-Operates an underground sprinkling system using a high volume of water at low pressure-Engine HP: 3/4-Pumps up to 38.6 GPM at 5 feet (30 PSI)-Single-phase-Product Type: Fountai. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Wayne

48 GPM Vertical Float Switch Thermoplastic Sump Pump

48 GPM Vertical Float Switch Thermoplastic Sump Pump

$139.40  $118.99

Features: -Reinforced thermoplastic submersible sump pump-Piggy-back vertical float switch for automatic or manual operation-Top suction design filters debris and minimizes clogging-Designed for easy installation without any plumbing changes-Easy c. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Wayne

1 HP Cast-Iron Convertible Well Jet Pump

1 HP Cast-Iron Convertible Well Jet Pump

$385.56  $344.00

Features: -Cast-iron convertible well jet pump-For wells up to 90 feet in depth-Pressure switch is pre-set at 30-50 PSI for automatic operation-Dedicated priming port for volute filling-Durable cast-iron volute-Engine HP: 1-Single-phase-Pumps up. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Wayne

2550GPH Skimmer Pump 138" Shut Off

2550GPH Skimmer Pump 138" Shut Off

$300.99  $204.00

The Proline Skimmer pump with Hy-Drive technology is a continuous duty pump designed for use inside a pond skimmer to move large volumes of water silently and efficiently through filtration systems, a waterfall, stream or fountain. It's compact size a. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Danner

48" Rigid Liner Kit with 17.5 GPM Pump and Fittings for 2 Outlets

48" Rigid Liner Kit with 17.5 GPM Pump and Fittings for 2 Outlets

$917.18  $747.00

For use with the Adirondack Bubbling Rock Feature (sold separately). Features: -Kit includes a rigid liner basin, a 17.5 GPM pump, a hose, a flow valve, and the fittings needed for installation for 2 outlets-Product Type: Fountain Pump-Distressed: N. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Hargrove Outdoor Products

76.67 GPM Submersible Pump

76.67 GPM Submersible Pump

$511.00  $502.68

Features: -The built-in thermal protector turns off the power supply in case of overload, therefore protecting the motor-Product Type: Utility Pump-Distressed: No-Material Casing: Aluminum -Material Casing Details: -Number of Items Included: 1-Pi. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Subaru

Space Saver 24" Rigid Liner Basin Kit with 10 GPM Pump and Fittings

Space Saver 24" Rigid Liner Basin Kit with 10 GPM Pump and Fittings

$347.15  $274.00

For use with the 20-inch Basalt, Rambling Stream or Wandering Spring Bubbling Rock Feature (sold separately). Features: -Kit includes a rigid liner basin, a 10 GPM pump, a hose, and the fittings needed for installation-Product Type: Fountain Pump-Di. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Hargrove Outdoor Products

Space Saver 24" Rigid Liner Basin Kit with 3.3 GPM Pump

Space Saver 24" Rigid Liner Basin Kit with 3.3 GPM Pump

$374.99

For use with the Mesa Bubbling Rock Feature (sold separately). Features: -Kit includes a rigid liner basin, a 3.3 GPM pump, and a hose-Product Type: Fountain Pump-Distressed: No-Number of Items Included: 3-Pieces Included: Basin, pump and hose-Ho. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Hargrove Outdoor Products

48" Rigid Liner Kit with 17.5 GPM Pump and Fittings for 1 Outlet

48" Rigid Liner Kit with 17.5 GPM Pump and Fittings for 1 Outlet

$855.46  $725.00

For use with the 30-inch or 40-inch Basalt or the Babbling Brook Bubbling Rock Feature (sold separately). Features: -Kit includes a rigid liner basin, a 17.5 GPM pump, a hose, a flow valve, and the fittings needed for installation for 1 outlet-Produc. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Hargrove Outdoor Products

3.5 GPM Firehose Test Pump with Honda Engine

3.5 GPM Firehose Test Pump with Honda Engine

$6,032.56  $3,699.99

This pump is designed to safely test fire hose up to 6 inches in diameter. Four independently controlled outlets and a large 2 & 1/2" swivel inlet help to quickly fill and bleed lines for testing. Meets testing standards as set forth in the NFPA (1962. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Rice Hydro

555 GPM Honda GX - 340 Trash Pump

555 GPM Honda GX - 340 Trash Pump

$3,474.35  $3,257.24

Features: -555 GPM Honda GX - 340 Trash Pump-Is the perfect choice for larger pumping applications-Powered by an easy start Honda engine, it is the preferred choice for dependable dewatering-Four handles on the frame means easy handling-The gasolin. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Multiquip

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Figura 8. Medición correcta de la elevación estática con respecto a la operación de la bomba. La elevación estática se mide desde la superficie del suministro de agua al punto central de la abertura de entrada de la bomba.

Hidrostática

La rama de la hidráulica que trata con la presión y el equilibrio del agua (en reposo) y otros líquidos es conocida como hidrostática. El agua es el líquido considerado con mas frecuencia en el estudio de los principios básicos de la hidráulica, pero otros líquidos están también incluidos.

Altura de carga estática

La altura por encima de un punto dado de una columna o cuerpo de agua en reposo (el peso de del agua que causa la presión) se denomina altura de carga estática o presión estática (static head en Inglés).

Con respecto a la operación de la bomba, la altura de carga se mide desde el punto central de la conexión de salida de la bomba (vea la Figura 7).

En la mayoría de los cálculos, es una práctica común estimar la presión por pie de la altura de carga en 0,5 psi. El valor correcto para el cálculo de la presión de agua por pie de altura de carga estática es 0,43302 psi. Este valor es preciso para una temperatura del agua a 62 ºF.

Elevación estática

La altura a la que la presión atmosférica hace que una columna de agua se eleve por encima de la fuente de suministro para restaurar el equilibrio se denomina elevación estática (vea la Figura 8). El peso de la columna de agua (1 pulgada cuadrada de área de sección transversal) requerida para restaurar el equilibrio es igual a la presión ejercida por la atmósfera (psi).

La presión de la atmósfera puede estar disponible para levantar agua desde la fuente de suministro a una bomba de elevada mediante la eliminación del aire de la entrada de la bomba (véase la figura 9). En el diagrama de la izquierda, el tubo de entrada (antes de la conexión con la bomba) presiona hacia abajo sobre la superficie del agua con la misma presión (psi) tanto por dentro como fuera de la cañería, debido a que el tubo está abierto en la parte superior.

Figura 9.  Método para hacer que la presión atmosférica esté disponible para la elevación de agua desde la fuente hasta una bomba de elevada.

Si el extremo de la tubería está conectado a una bomba que extrae el aire de la tubería para crear un vacío parcial, el agua sube a una altura A (véase figura 9) que está determinada por la presión atmosférica disponible.

Cuando el barómetro indica 30 pulgadas (76,20 centímetros) de mercurio a nivel del mar, la presión atmosférica a nivel del mar es de 14,74 psi, que es la presión atmosférica  que puede mantener o equilibrar una columna de 34,042 pies (1.037,60 centímetros) de agua, si la columna está totalmente desprovista de aire y la temperatura del agua es de 62 ºF (16,67 ºC). Por lo tanto, la presión atmosférica eleva el agua a una altura que establece el equilibrio entre el peso del agua y la presión de la atmósfera.

Cuando la temperatura del agua esta más caliente que 62 ºF (16,67 ºC), la altura a la que el agua puede ser levantada disminuye debido a la mayor presión de vapor. Una bomba de alimentación de caldera tomando agua a 153 ºF (67,22 ºC), por ejemplo, no puede producir un vacío superior a 21,78 pulgadas  (55,32 centímetros), porque el agua comienza a hervir en ese punto y llena la cámara de la bomba con vapor. Por lo tanto, la elevación teórica es:

El resultado es aproximado ya que no se hace corrección para la columna de agua de 34 pies (10,36 metros) a 62 ºF  (16,67 ºC). En 153 ºF (67,22 ºC), por supuesto, la longitud de la columna se incrementa ligeramente.

Figura 10. La elevación máxima de agua a la temperatura estándar (62 ◦ F) cuando la presión barométrica es de 30 pulgadas (izquierda) y 24 pulgadas (derecha).

La altura máxima a la que el agua a temperatura estándar (62 ºF  ó 16,67 ºC) puede ser levantada se determina por la presión barométrica. Como se muestra en la figura 10, el agua se eleva a una altura de 34,1 pies  (1.039,37 centímetros) cuando la presión barométrica es de 30 pulgadas  (76,20 centímetros), y se eleva a 27,28 pies (831,49 centímetros) cuando la presión barométrica es de 24 pulgadas (60,96 centímetros) (utilizando 0,49116 psi  y 2,30947 pies ó 70,39 centímetros a la cabeza del agua para cada psi).

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