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Principios de Hidráulica

Hidráulica : Descripción funcional de las bombas hidráulicas.

Una comprensión de la es necesaria antes de que los principios básicos de los diversos tipos de bombas puedan ser entendidos. La hidráulica es la rama de la física que se ocupa de las propiedades mecánicas del agua y otros líquidos, y con la aplicación de estas propiedades en la ingeniería.

Mientras la hidráulica entró en prominencia en el último medio siglo, no es una ciencia nueva. Blaise Pascal, un científico francés en el siglo XVII, desarrolló la ley fundamental de la ciencia de la hidráulica.

Pero la incapacidad para producir materiales de sellado satisfactorios, acabados mecanizados, y piezas mecanizadas limitó el crecimiento de la hidráulica antes de la primera parte del siglo XX.

Principios básicos

Como se explica en otras páginas, el agua es una sustancia verdaderamente notable. En su máxima densidad (39,1 ºF), el agua se expande cuando se aplica calor. También se expande ligeramente cuando la temperatura disminuye desde ese punto. Bajo la influencia de la temperatura y la presión, el agua puede existir como un sólido (hielo), un líquido (agua), y un gas (vapor).

La presión ejercida por un líquido sobre una superficie es proporcional al área de la superficie. La figura 1 muestra el principio hidráulico. Dos cilindros de diferentes diámetros están unidos por un tubo y se llenan de agua. Si el área M del pistón más grande, por ejemplo, es 30 veces el área de la superficie S de pistón más pequeño, y un peso de 2 libras es colocado en el pistón más pequeño, la presión se transmite al agua y al pistón más grande. Esa presión es igual a 2 libras por cada porción de la superficie del pistón más grande, que es igual en área a la suma del área de la superficie del pistón más pequeño. El pistón más grande está expuesto a una presión hacia arriba igual a 30 veces la del pistón más pequeño, o sea 60 libras. Además, si un peso 60-libras se coloca en el pistón mayor, los dos pistones permanecen en equilibrio. Este equilibrio es destruido en caso de que un mayor o un menor peso sea aplicado.

Una pequeña cantidad de agua logra equilibrar un peso mucho mayor. Como se muestra en la Figura 2, una locomotora que pesa 101.790 libras puede ser equilibrada en un elevador hidráulico contra una cantidad menor de agua, suponiendo que no hay fugas ni fricción, y que el tubo vertical que conduce al cilindro de émbolo sea excesivamente pequeño en diámetro. Por ejemplo, si el área del émbolo requiere 100 psi de presión en el émbolo para equilibrar la locomotora 101.790 libras, la carga es equilibrada cuando el tubo sea llenado de agua hasta una altura de 231 pies (100 x 2,31).

Figura 1. El principio hidráulico de que la presión ejercida por un líquido sobre una superficie es proporcional al área de la superficie.

Figura 2 El principio de que una menor cantidad de agua puede ser usada para equilibrar un peso mucho mayor.

La presión en cualquier parte de un fluido que tiene una densidad uniforme es proporcional a su profundidad por debajo de la superficie (véase la figura 3). Como se ilustra en la Figura 4, una pesa de 1 libra colocada sobre una escala, totaliza 11 libras, lo que da un peso total o  presión de 11 psi si se ubica sobre una pulgada cuadrada de superficie. Del mismo modo, una columna de agua de 1 pulgada cuadrada de sección transversal y 2,31 pies de altura pesa 1 libra (vea la Figura 4). Un manómetro colocado en la parte inferior de la columna  que sea de 4,62 pies (2,31 x 2), de altura indica una presión de 2 psi. Por lo tanto, la presión de agua a cualquier profundidad es igual a:

 

Figura 3. El principio de que la presión en cualquier porción de un líquido que tenga densidad uniforme es proporcional a su profundidad por debajo de la superficie.

Figura 4. El principio de que la presión de agua en cualquier punto por debajo la superficie es proporcional a la profundidad del punto debajo de la superficie. Se ilustra la presión en psi (izquierda), y se muestra la relación entre la presión del agua en cualquier punto por debajo de la superficie y la profundidad en pies (derecha).

Figura 5. Los fluidos suben hasta el mismo nivel en cada brazo de un tubo en U cuando la temperatura del líquido es la misma en cada brazo (izquierda), y se elevan a niveles diferentes cuando la temperatura es diferente en cada brazo (derecha).

Como se muestra en la Figura 5, los fluidos se elevan hasta el mismo nivel en cada brazo de un tubo en U cuando la temperatura del líquido es la misma en cada brazo. Sin embargo, los fluidos se elevan a niveles diferentes cuando la temperatura es diferente en cada brazo (derecha).

Las consideraciones principales en hidráulica son altura de carga y la elevación. La altura de carga es la profundidad del agua en un recipiente, tubería o conducto, que es una medida de la presión en cualquier punto debajo de la superficie. El término altura de carga (head en Inglés) indica la diferencia en el nivel de agua entre dos puntos. Por lo general se expresa en pies. Los dos tipos de alturas de carga son carga estática y carga dinámica (véase la Figura 6).

En la elevación, o altura de alzamiento, es la altura a la que la presión atmosférica fuerza o eleva al agua por encima de la elevación de su fuente de suministro. Con respecto a la operación de la bomba, la altura, medida desde la elevación de la fuente de suministro hasta el punto central de la abertura de entrada de la bomba se denomina elevación (véase la Figura 7 y Figura 8). Los dos tipos de elevación son elevación estática y elevación dinámica.

Figura 6. Altura de carga dinámica y estática.

Figura 7. Puntos correctos de medición de altura de carga y elevación.

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Water Pump

Water Pump

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Features: -Stainless steel pump-Quick connect terminals for easy installation-Removable check valve eliminates the need for an in-line flow check-Stainless steel is your answer for corrosive and oxygen bearing fluids-Patented electronic starting un. [Read more]

Brand: Grundfos

1/2 HP Cast-Iron Pedestal Pump

1/2 HP Cast-Iron Pedestal Pump

$220.51  $155.00

Features: -Cast-iron pedestal pump-Adjustable vertical float switch allows for easy changes in operating cycle to fit application-Top suction design filters debris and prevents clogging-Designed for easy installation without any plumbing changes-Hi. [Read more]

Brand: Wayne

77 GPM Vertical Float Switch Cast-Iron Sump Pump

77 GPM Vertical Float Switch Cast-Iron Sump Pump

$191.93  $155.00

Features: -Cast-iron submersible sump pump-Vertical float switch for automatic operation-Top suction design filters debris and prevents clogging-Designed for easy installation without any plumbing changes-Stainless steel, high performance motor-Ea. [Read more]

Brand: Wayne

4" Gasoline Semi-Trash Water Pump

4" Gasoline Semi-Trash Water Pump

$800.00  $498.87

Features: -Type: 100mm/4" semi-trash pump-Construction: Cast aluminum housing, cast iron impeller & volute-Seals: Self lubricated mechanical seals-Seal Faces: Silicon carbide & ceramic-Discharge port diameter: 100mmx1-Max. Capacity: 96(m3/hr)-Sel. [Read more]

Brand: Amico

270 GPM Electric Submersible Clean Water Pump with Three-Phase Motors

270 GPM Electric Submersible Clean Water Pump with Three-Phase Motors

$3,128.19  $2,630.46

Features: -Electric Submersible Clean Water Pump with Three-Phase Motors-Multiquip's electric submersible pumps are the perfect tool for a wide range of dewatering applications-Mechanical seal within an oil filled chamber for positive lubrication-Re. [Read more]

Brand: Multiquip

1/2 HP Tether Float Switch Thermoplastic Sump Pump with Epoxy Steel Motor Case

1/2 HP Tether Float Switch Thermoplastic Sump Pump with Epoxy Steel Motor Case

$156.67  $127.00

Features: -Reinforced thermoplastic submersible sump pump-Piggy-back tether float switch for automatic or manual operation-Top suction design filters debris and prevents clogging-Designed for easy installation without any plumbing changes-Epoxy-coa. [Read more]

Brand: Wayne

35 GPH Magnetic Drive Utility Pump

35 GPH Magnetic Drive Utility Pump

$19.99  $17.43

Features: -Pond pump-Ideal replacement pump-Energy efficient-No maintenance, only one moving part-Completely submersible-No motor seals to wear-Fish safe, not oil filled, can't leak-35 GPH maximum flow-1 Year limited warranty-Made in the USA. [Read more]

Brand: Danner

190 GPH Recirculating Water Pump

190 GPH Recirculating Water Pump

$92.00  $79.50

Features: -Circulator pump-In line or submersible operation-Energy efficient-0.38" MPT inlet-0.25" MPT outlet-Made in the USA-Product Type: Circulator Pump-Distressed: No-Material: Plastic -Material Details: -Power Source: Electric-Switch Ty. [Read more]

Brand: Danner

250 GPH Recirculating Water and Air Pump

250 GPH Recirculating Water and Air Pump

$103.31  $85.00

Features: -Circulator pump-In line or submersible operation-Energy efficient-0.5" FPT inlet-0.5" MPT outlet-250 GPH-Made in the USA-Product Type: Circulator Pump-Distressed: No-Material: Plastic -Material Details: -Power Source: Electric-Sw. [Read more]

Brand: Danner

Combination Sump Pump System

Combination Sump Pump System

$349.99  $306.00

Features: -Pump system-Package contains: Controller, charger, two dual micro reed float switches, primary pump and backup pump, instruction manual (battery and acid sold separately)-Offers two combination sump pump systems designed to provide both pr. [Read more]

Brand: Basement Watchdog

4.25" Chassis Grease Piston Pump Packages

4.25" Chassis Grease Piston Pump Packages

$3,262.00  $2,458.29

This model is designed for chassis lubrication. The model covered by this manual includes an outlet swivel, material supply hoses and airline lubricator. Material dispensing accessories and supply lines and fittings must be capable of withstanding pre. [Read more]

Brand: Ingersoll Rand

4.25" Oil Supply Piston Pump with Stub

4.25" Oil Supply Piston Pump with Stub

$2,935.00  $2,280.95

This model is designed for chassis lubrication. The model covered by this manual includes an outlet swivel, material supply hoses and airline lubricator. Material dispensing accessories and supply lines and fittings must be capable of withstanding pre. [Read more]

Brand: Ingersoll Rand

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Figura 8. Medición correcta de la elevación estática con respecto a la operación de la bomba. La elevación estática se mide desde la superficie del suministro de agua al punto central de la abertura de entrada de la bomba.

Hidrostática

La rama de la hidráulica que trata con la presión y el equilibrio del agua (en reposo) y otros líquidos es conocida como hidrostática. El agua es el líquido considerado con mas frecuencia en el estudio de los principios básicos de la hidráulica, pero otros líquidos están también incluidos.

Altura de carga estática

La altura por encima de un punto dado de una columna o cuerpo de agua en reposo (el peso de del agua que causa la presión) se denomina altura de carga estática o presión estática (static head en Inglés).

Con respecto a la operación de la bomba, la altura de carga se mide desde el punto central de la conexión de salida de la bomba (vea la Figura 7).

En la mayoría de los cálculos, es una práctica común estimar la presión por pie de la altura de carga en 0,5 psi. El valor correcto para el cálculo de la presión de agua por pie de altura de carga estática es 0,43302 psi. Este valor es preciso para una temperatura del agua a 62 ºF.

Elevación estática

La altura a la que la presión atmosférica hace que una columna de agua se eleve por encima de la fuente de suministro para restaurar el equilibrio se denomina elevación estática (vea la Figura 8). El peso de la columna de agua (1 pulgada cuadrada de área de sección transversal) requerida para restaurar el equilibrio es igual a la presión ejercida por la atmósfera (psi).

La presión de la atmósfera puede estar disponible para levantar agua desde la fuente de suministro a una bomba de elevada mediante la eliminación del aire de la entrada de la bomba (véase la figura 9). En el diagrama de la izquierda, el tubo de entrada (antes de la conexión con la bomba) presiona hacia abajo sobre la superficie del agua con la misma presión (psi) tanto por dentro como fuera de la cañería, debido a que el tubo está abierto en la parte superior.

Figura 9.  Método para hacer que la presión atmosférica esté disponible para la elevación de agua desde la fuente hasta una bomba de elevada.

Si el extremo de la tubería está conectado a una bomba que extrae el aire de la tubería para crear un vacío parcial, el agua sube a una altura A (véase figura 9) que está determinada por la presión atmosférica disponible.

Cuando el barómetro indica 30 pulgadas (76,20 centímetros) de mercurio a nivel del mar, la presión atmosférica a nivel del mar es de 14,74 psi, que es la presión atmosférica  que puede mantener o equilibrar una columna de 34,042 pies (1.037,60 centímetros) de agua, si la columna está totalmente desprovista de aire y la temperatura del agua es de 62 ºF (16,67 ºC). Por lo tanto, la presión atmosférica eleva el agua a una altura que establece el equilibrio entre el peso del agua y la presión de la atmósfera.

Cuando la temperatura del agua esta más caliente que 62 ºF (16,67 ºC), la altura a la que el agua puede ser levantada disminuye debido a la mayor presión de vapor. Una bomba de alimentación de caldera tomando agua a 153 ºF (67,22 ºC), por ejemplo, no puede producir un vacío superior a 21,78 pulgadas  (55,32 centímetros), porque el agua comienza a hervir en ese punto y llena la cámara de la bomba con vapor. Por lo tanto, la elevación teórica es:

El resultado es aproximado ya que no se hace corrección para la columna de agua de 34 pies (10,36 metros) a 62 ºF  (16,67 ºC). En 153 ºF (67,22 ºC), por supuesto, la longitud de la columna se incrementa ligeramente.

Figura 10. La elevación máxima de agua a la temperatura estándar (62 ◦ F) cuando la presión barométrica es de 30 pulgadas (izquierda) y 24 pulgadas (derecha).

La altura máxima a la que el agua a temperatura estándar (62 ºF  ó 16,67 ºC) puede ser levantada se determina por la presión barométrica. Como se muestra en la figura 10, el agua se eleva a una altura de 34,1 pies  (1.039,37 centímetros) cuando la presión barométrica es de 30 pulgadas  (76,20 centímetros), y se eleva a 27,28 pies (831,49 centímetros) cuando la presión barométrica es de 24 pulgadas (60,96 centímetros) (utilizando 0,49116 psi  y 2,30947 pies ó 70,39 centímetros a la cabeza del agua para cada psi).

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