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Principios de Hidráulica

Hidráulica : Descripción funcional de las bombas hidráulicas.

Una comprensión de la es necesaria antes de que los principios básicos de los diversos tipos de bombas puedan ser entendidos. La hidráulica es la rama de la física que se ocupa de las propiedades mecánicas del agua y otros líquidos, y con la aplicación de estas propiedades en la ingeniería.

Mientras la hidráulica entró en prominencia en el último medio siglo, no es una ciencia nueva. Blaise Pascal, un científico francés en el siglo XVII, desarrolló la ley fundamental de la ciencia de la hidráulica.

Pero la incapacidad para producir materiales de sellado satisfactorios, acabados mecanizados, y piezas mecanizadas limitó el crecimiento de la hidráulica antes de la primera parte del siglo XX.

Principios básicos

Como se explica en otras páginas, el agua es una sustancia verdaderamente notable. En su máxima densidad (39,1 ºF), el agua se expande cuando se aplica calor. También se expande ligeramente cuando la temperatura disminuye desde ese punto. Bajo la influencia de la temperatura y la presión, el agua puede existir como un sólido (hielo), un líquido (agua), y un gas (vapor).

La presión ejercida por un líquido sobre una superficie es proporcional al área de la superficie. La figura 1 muestra el principio hidráulico. Dos cilindros de diferentes diámetros están unidos por un tubo y se llenan de agua. Si el área M del pistón más grande, por ejemplo, es 30 veces el área de la superficie S de pistón más pequeño, y un peso de 2 libras es colocado en el pistón más pequeño, la presión se transmite al agua y al pistón más grande. Esa presión es igual a 2 libras por cada porción de la superficie del pistón más grande, que es igual en área a la suma del área de la superficie del pistón más pequeño. El pistón más grande está expuesto a una presión hacia arriba igual a 30 veces la del pistón más pequeño, o sea 60 libras. Además, si un peso 60-libras se coloca en el pistón mayor, los dos pistones permanecen en equilibrio. Este equilibrio es destruido en caso de que un mayor o un menor peso sea aplicado.

Una pequeña cantidad de agua logra equilibrar un peso mucho mayor. Como se muestra en la Figura 2, una locomotora que pesa 101.790 libras puede ser equilibrada en un elevador hidráulico contra una cantidad menor de agua, suponiendo que no hay fugas ni fricción, y que el tubo vertical que conduce al cilindro de émbolo sea excesivamente pequeño en diámetro. Por ejemplo, si el área del émbolo requiere 100 psi de presión en el émbolo para equilibrar la locomotora 101.790 libras, la carga es equilibrada cuando el tubo sea llenado de agua hasta una altura de 231 pies (100 x 2,31).

Figura 1. El principio hidráulico de que la presión ejercida por un líquido sobre una superficie es proporcional al área de la superficie.

Figura 2 El principio de que una menor cantidad de agua puede ser usada para equilibrar un peso mucho mayor.

La presión en cualquier parte de un fluido que tiene una densidad uniforme es proporcional a su profundidad por debajo de la superficie (véase la figura 3). Como se ilustra en la Figura 4, una pesa de 1 libra colocada sobre una escala, totaliza 11 libras, lo que da un peso total o  presión de 11 psi si se ubica sobre una pulgada cuadrada de superficie. Del mismo modo, una columna de agua de 1 pulgada cuadrada de sección transversal y 2,31 pies de altura pesa 1 libra (vea la Figura 4). Un manómetro colocado en la parte inferior de la columna  que sea de 4,62 pies (2,31 x 2), de altura indica una presión de 2 psi. Por lo tanto, la presión de agua a cualquier profundidad es igual a:

 

Figura 3. El principio de que la presión en cualquier porción de un líquido que tenga densidad uniforme es proporcional a su profundidad por debajo de la superficie.

Figura 4. El principio de que la presión de agua en cualquier punto por debajo la superficie es proporcional a la profundidad del punto debajo de la superficie. Se ilustra la presión en psi (izquierda), y se muestra la relación entre la presión del agua en cualquier punto por debajo de la superficie y la profundidad en pies (derecha).

Figura 5. Los fluidos suben hasta el mismo nivel en cada brazo de un tubo en U cuando la temperatura del líquido es la misma en cada brazo (izquierda), y se elevan a niveles diferentes cuando la temperatura es diferente en cada brazo (derecha).

Como se muestra en la Figura 5, los fluidos se elevan hasta el mismo nivel en cada brazo de un tubo en U cuando la temperatura del líquido es la misma en cada brazo. Sin embargo, los fluidos se elevan a niveles diferentes cuando la temperatura es diferente en cada brazo (derecha).

Las consideraciones principales en hidráulica son altura de carga y la elevación. La altura de carga es la profundidad del agua en un recipiente, tubería o conducto, que es una medida de la presión en cualquier punto debajo de la superficie. El término altura de carga (head en Inglés) indica la diferencia en el nivel de agua entre dos puntos. Por lo general se expresa en pies. Los dos tipos de alturas de carga son carga estática y carga dinámica (véase la Figura 6).

En la elevación, o altura de alzamiento, es la altura a la que la presión atmosférica fuerza o eleva al agua por encima de la elevación de su fuente de suministro. Con respecto a la operación de la bomba, la altura, medida desde la elevación de la fuente de suministro hasta el punto central de la abertura de entrada de la bomba se denomina elevación (véase la Figura 7 y Figura 8). Los dos tipos de elevación son elevación estática y elevación dinámica.

Figura 6. Altura de carga dinámica y estática.

Figura 7. Puntos correctos de medición de altura de carga y elevación.

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36" Big Gulp Water Removal Siphon Pump
 

36" Big Gulp Water Removal Siphon Pump

$42.99  $32.24

Manual siphon pump for large jobs. Can remove 12 gallons of water per minute (about 5 strokes). Ideal for cleaning fountains, toilets, hot tubs, and spas. Can empty a standard rain barrel in minutes. Removes water from backed up sinks and sprinkler va. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: ConservCo

Submersible Sump Pump
 

Submersible Sump Pump

$152.62  $126.84

Features: -Sump pump-Efficient permanent split capacitor motor (PSC)-Dual seals to protect the motor-Upper and lower ball bearings-Water-cooled, no oil to leak-Thermally protected-Vertical discharge provides narrow footprint to fit in sump pits a. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Basement Watchdog

1/2 HP Cast-Iron Convertible Well Jet Pump
 

1/2 HP Cast-Iron Convertible Well Jet Pump

$273.17  $217.83

Features: -Cast-iron convertible well jet pump-For wells up to 90 feet in depth-Pressure switch is pre-set at 30-50 PSI for automatic operation-Dedicated priming port for volute filling-Durable cast-iron volute-Engine HP: 1/2-Single-phase-Pumps. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Wayne

PumpPro 4,755 GHP High Pressure Water Pump with Recoil Start
 

PumpPro 4,755 GHP High Pressure Water Pump with Recoil Start

$599.00  $399.99

Features: -High pressure water pump-Heavy cast iron volute with dual impellers-Low oil engine shutdown protection; auto decompression for easy recoil start and adjustable throttle-Heavy duty roll cage-Optional universal wheel kit (sold separately, . [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Lifan Power

1/2" Impeller 115V Sweat Water Pump with Aquastat / Timer / Check Valve
 

1/2" Impeller 115V Sweat Water Pump with Aquastat / Timer / Check Valve

$462.00  $304.95

Features: -Sweat connection includes timer, aquastat, and line cord-Sweat pump-UP series circulator pumps are specifically designed for heating systems-Suitable for circulation of hot domestic water and for circulation of liquid in cooling and air-c. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Grundfos

1/2 HP Tether Float Switch Thermoplastic Sump Pump with Epoxy Steel Motor Case
 

1/2 HP Tether Float Switch Thermoplastic Sump Pump with Epoxy Steel Motor Case

$156.67  $124.99

Features: -Reinforced thermoplastic submersible sump pump-Piggy-back tether float switch for automatic or manual operation-Top suction design filters debris and prevents clogging-Designed for easy installation without any plumbing changes-Epoxy-coa. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Wayne

3,900 GPH VersiFlo Horizontal Pump
 

3,900 GPH VersiFlo Horizontal Pump

$759.99

Matala Versiflow Pumps are a high quality, reliable, industrial-grade, submersible waterfall pump. Their versatile design makes them an excellent choice for heavy and continuous flow duty in water garden skimmers and pump vaults. The pump can be laid. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Matala Usa

1/3 HP Pedestal Sump Pump
 

1/3 HP Pedestal Sump Pump

$91.70  $77.95

Features: -Sump pump-Pumps 3600 gallons per hour-8' Grounded cord and 3 prong plug-Top screened inlet with 1.25" discharge-Non-clogging impeller-UL approved-Corrosion resistant plastic construction-Rugged cast iron construction-Heavy-duty, rugg. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Flotec

1-1/2 HP Self Priming High Capacity Sprinkler Pump
 

1-1/2 HP Self Priming High Capacity Sprinkler Pump

$415.20  $261.99

Features: -Pond pump-Ideal for lawn sprinkling applications-Capable of operating up to 30 sprinkler heads-Self-priming design permits use on automatic sprinkler systems and also for de-watering, and water transfer-Motors have stainless steel shaft. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Flotec

3" Dewatering Pump
 

3" Dewatering Pump

$498.00  $489.99

Features: -Collection: Powermate-Distressed: No-Powder Coated Finish: No-Gloss Finish: No-Material: Other -Material Details: Steel-Impeller Materials: Cast iron -Impeller Materials Details: -Tank Size: 0.95-Control Box Required: No -Control Bo. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Powermate

2" Trash Pump Float Switch: Float Switch, Voltage: 110 Volts
 

2" Trash Pump Float Switch: Float Switch, Voltage: 110 Volts

$347.00  $305.00

This durable trash pump is powerful enough to get the job done and compact enough to use in almost any setting whether it be at home, in the office, or at a construction site. With reliable and innovative materials this water pump from Tsurumi is sure. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Tsurumi

1/2 HP Cast-Iron Transfer Utility Pump
 

1/2 HP Cast-Iron Transfer Utility Pump

$176.66  $152.99

Features: -Reinforced thermoplastic suction strainer included-Applications include drainage, dewatering flooded basements, emptying stock tanks, draining water heaters and charging polyglycol radiant heating lines-Boosts line pressure up to 40 PSI-B. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Wayne

12V Thermoplastic Battery Back-Up Sump Pump System
 

12V Thermoplastic Battery Back-Up Sump Pump System

$313.25  $257.63

Features: -Battery back-up sump pump system-Reliable reed float switch for automatic operation-Alarm lets homeowner know back-up system is active-Designed for easy installation without any major plumbing changes-Battery charger keeps battery proper. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Wayne

1 HP Portable Stainless Steel Lawn Sprinkling Pump
 

1 HP Portable Stainless Steel Lawn Sprinkling Pump

$204.99  $175.43

Features: -Garden hose adapter included-Portable lawn sprinkling pump-Material: Stainless steel-Maintains pressure up to 80 PSI-Easy carry handle for portability-Engine HP: 1-Pumps up to 12 GPM at 0 feet-Single-phase-Product Type: Fountain Pump. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Wayne

356 GPM Centrifugal Pump
 

356 GPM Centrifugal Pump

$1,199.99

A simple, compact, and lightweight pump for a wide array of applications. Features: -Easy start-Very low noise-Product Type: Utility Pump-Finish: Yellow and black-Distressed: No-Material Casing: Aluminum -Material Casing Details: -Material Shaf. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Subaru

38 GPM Tether Float Switch Thermoplastic Sump Pump
 

38 GPM Tether Float Switch Thermoplastic Sump Pump

$116.01  $90.99

Features: -Reinforced thermoplastic submersible sump pump-Piggy-back tether float switch for automatic or manual operation-Top suction design filters debris and prevents clogging-Designed for easy installation without any plumbing changes-Easy carr. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Wayne

1/2 HP, 2-Wire Stainless Steel Deep Well Submersible Pump
 

1/2 HP, 2-Wire Stainless Steel Deep Well Submersible Pump

$423.78  $314.95

Features: -Deep well submersible pump-Material: Stainless steel-For wells 20 to 120 feet in depth-High efficiency, hermetically sealed motor for long life-Motor enclosure, pump shell and fasteners-Engine HP: 1/2-Single-phase-Submersible design f. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Wayne

2" Dewatering Pump
 

2" Dewatering Pump

$455.00  $449.99

Features: -Water pump-Ceramic/graphite seals-4 Cycle engine-Low oil shutdown-Collection: Powermate-Distressed: No-Powder Coated Finish: No-Gloss Finish: No-Material: Other -Material Details: Steel-Impeller Materials: Cast iron -Impeller Mater. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Powermate

Emergency Battery Back Up Sump Pump System
 

Emergency Battery Back Up Sump Pump System

$444.99  $264.99

Features: -Sump pump system-Built in indicator lights allows you to easily view system status-Area light illuminates workspace-Prevent water damage as the unit continues to operate and pump out incoming water during power outages-Patented charging. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Simer

PumpPro 6.5 HP Semi-Trash Water Pump
 

PumpPro 6.5 HP Semi-Trash Water Pump

$499.00  $359.99

Features: -Semi-trash water pump-26.24' Suction lift - 85.3' max pump head 9,510 gallons per hour-Heavy duty cast aluminum housing with cast iron impeller-Low oil shutdown engine protection-Fuel tank capacity: 0.95 gal-EPA certified-Semi-trash wa. [Read more]

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Brand: Lifan Power

1/2 HP Cast-Iron Pedestal Pump
 

1/2 HP Cast-Iron Pedestal Pump

$220.51  $154.99

Features: -Cast-iron pedestal pump-Adjustable vertical float switch allows for easy changes in operating cycle to fit application-Top suction design filters debris and prevents clogging-Designed for easy installation without any plumbing changes-Hi. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

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190 GPH Danner PMK190 Pump and Filter with Bonus Fountain Head
 

190 GPH Danner PMK190 Pump and Filter with Bonus Fountain Head

$115.99  $91.95

Features: -Danner PMK190 190GPH pump and filter with bonus fountain head-190 gallon per hour pump-Provides mechanical and biological filtration-Made in the USA-Uses only 15 watts of electricity and is equipped with power cord-Collection: Pondmaste. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

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3,250 GPH VersiFlo Horizontal Pump
 

3,250 GPH VersiFlo Horizontal Pump

$1,209.99

Matala Versiflow Pumps are a high quality, reliable, industrial-grade, submersible waterfall pump. Their versatile design makes them an excellent choice for heavy and continuous flow duty in water garden skimmers and pump vaults. The pump can be laid. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

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3/4 HP Cast-Iron Shallow Well Jet Pump
 

3/4 HP Cast-Iron Shallow Well Jet Pump

$283.33  $243.99

Features: -Cast-iron shallow well jet pump-For wells up to 25 feet in depth-Pressure switch is pre-set at 30-50 PSI for automatic operation-Dedicated priming port for volute filling-Durable cast-iron volute-Engine HP: 3/4-Single-phase-Pumps up t. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Wayne

PumpPro 6.5 HP Chemical Pump
 

PumpPro 6.5 HP Chemical Pump

$883.71  $429.00

Features: -Industrial grade 6.5 HP gasoline OHV engine with chemical corrosive polyurethene pump assembly-Compression release for E-Z starting-Polyurethene hosing for pumping corrosive materials, chemicals, fertilizers, and fuels-Polyurethene volute. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Lifan Power

1/3 HP Automatic Submersible Effluent Pump
 

1/3 HP Automatic Submersible Effluent Pump

$299.99  $181.80

Features: -Effluent pump-Engine HP: 1/3-Plastic construction-Ideal for basement installations, laundry facilities, underground parking, grain storage and construction sites-Made in the USA-Product Type: Effluent or Sewage Pump-Distressed: No-Mat. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

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Hand Operated Pump
 

Hand Operated Pump

$1,120.13

Features: -Includes drum cover, hose assembly-Hand Operated Pump-Can deliver up to 1/4-ounce of lubricant per stroke-Follower plate and booster control handle capable of generating up to 7,500 psi-The ratio can be easily adjusted to handle and visc. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Ingersoll Rand

PumpPro 22,983 GHP Water Pump
 

PumpPro 22,983 GHP Water Pump

$805.38  $617.99

Features: -Industrial grade 9.0 MPH OHV 4-stroke gasoline engine-Delivers 22,983 gph, 14.76' lift and 78.74' maximum pump head-Heavy duty roll cage and cast iron impeller and viacon mechanical seal-Low oil shutdown engine protection-EPA certified. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Lifan Power

Battery Backup Sump Pump System
 

Battery Backup Sump Pump System

$349.00  $244.95

Features: -Includes: Controller, charger, dual micro reed float switch, pump, sensor to monitor battery fluid levels and battery box (battery sold separately)-Pump system-Fits next to the main AC pump and automatically begins pumping during a power o. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Basement Watchdog

2/3 HP Submersible Dewatering Pump
 

2/3 HP Submersible Dewatering Pump

$375.00  $326.00

This compact and durable submersible dewatering pump is perfect for taking care of low water levels whether it be in your home or at a construction site. This water pump packs a powerful punch in its small frame with strong materials and is easy to us. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Tsurumi

GPH 1300 Waterfall Pump with UV Clarifier
 

GPH 1300 Waterfall Pump with UV Clarifier

$209.23  $164.99

Features: -Fountain pump-Built in UV clarifier-Designed for waterfalls up to 72"-Compatible with 0.75" ID tubing-Product Type: Fountain Pump-Distressed: No-Power Source: Electric-Switch Type: Automatic. Dimensions: -Overall Height - Top to Bottom. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Geoglobal Partners

56 GPM Diaphragm Hydrostatic Test Pump
 

56 GPM Diaphragm Hydrostatic Test Pump

$8,800.00  $7,099.99

Features: -Can handle up to a 10% chlorine solution-Product Type: Test Pump-Finish: Red-Distressed: No-Powder Coated Finish: Yes-Number of Items Included: 1-Pieces Included: -Control Box Required: No -Control Box Included: -Hose Included: Yes. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Rice Hydro

PumpPro 17,440 GHP Trash Water Pump
 

PumpPro 17,440 GHP Trash Water Pump

$1,149.00  $797.98

Features: -Delivers 17,440 gph, 26' lift and 98' maximum pump head-Heavy duty cast iron volute and impeller-Fuel tank capacity: 1.58 gal-4 Clevice removable pump cover for easy clean out-EPA certified-PumpPro collection-Product Type: Effluent or. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Lifan Power

3 GPM Electric Firehose Test Pump
 

3 GPM Electric Firehose Test Pump

$3,911.63  $2,584.82

This pump is designed to safely test fire hose up to 6 inches in diameter. Four independently controlled outlets and a large 2 & 1/2" swivel inlet help to quickly fill and bleed lines for testing. Meets testing standards as set forth in the NFPA (1962. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Rice Hydro

240-280 GPM Aquarium and Fountain Pump
 

240-280 GPM Aquarium and Fountain Pump

$30.00  $29.09

Fountain pump with adjustable flow control. The flow can be from 240GPM to 280GPM depending on the length of the tubing and the adjustment of flow level. Features: -Easy water flow adjustment-Super quiet operation-Used in marine water and fresh wate. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Canary Products

1300 GPH PT330 Powerjet Fountain Pump Kit
 

1300 GPH PT330 Powerjet Fountain Pump Kit

$224.99  $162.99

Features: -Pump-Material: Plastic ceramic magnet-High performance, foam-free strainer cage technology for less maintenance-Extremely energy efficient pump-Complete kit with multiple fountain heads and hose connectors-1300 GPH-Collection: PowerJet. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Laguna Waterworks

1/4 HP Utility Pump
 

1/4 HP Utility Pump

$161.35  $149.99

Features: -Utility pump-Built in electronic water sensor automatically checks for water-Detects water at 0.75" and pumps down to 0.25"-Patented electronic monitoring allows pump to start every 2.5 minutes to check for water-Shuts off if no water is. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Flotec

17.96 GPH Storm Surge Portable Semi Trash Pump
 

17.96 GPH Storm Surge Portable Semi Trash Pump

$369.99  $329.99

Storm Surge Portable Water Pumps are reliable and powerful, and equipped with easy starting, over-sized Viper engines for superior power. The Storm Surge pumps feature close-tolerance fits between moving and stationary parts, allowing these pumps to c. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Earthquake

150 GPM 2" Water Pump
 

150 GPM 2" Water Pump

$352.58  $324.99

Features: -Includes strainer, coupling and hose clamps-Material: Cast iron-4 Stroke air cooled OHV engine-Low oil shutdown-Pumps 150 GPM-EPA approved-Pump lift: 1020"-Distressed: No-Material: Cast iron -Material Details: -Power Source: Gas. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: All Power America

300 PSI Hydrostatic Test Water Pump with 5.0 HP Briggs and Stratton Engine
 

300 PSI Hydrostatic Test Water Pump with 5.0 HP Briggs and Stratton Engine

$4,405.28  $2,213.17

Features: -Water pump-Automatic pressure regulator with inlet bypass-Made in the USA-Output flow: 5 GPM-Maximum Pressure: 300 PSI-Product Type: Test Pump-Finish: Red-Distressed: No-Powder Coated Finish: Yes-Number of Items Included: 1-Pieces. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Rice Hydro

1/2 HP Cast-Iron Shallow Well Jet Pump
 

1/2 HP Cast-Iron Shallow Well Jet Pump

$271.66  $224.99

Features: -Cast-iron shallow well jet pump-For wells up to 25 feet in depth-Pressure switch is pre-set at 30-50 PSI for automatic operation-Dedicated priming port for volute filling-Durable cast-iron volute-Engine HP: 1/2-Single-phase-Pumps up t. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Wayne

Fountain Jet Pumps GPH: 92 GPH
 

Fountain Jet Pumps GPH: 92 GPH

$23.99  $23.09

Features: -Pump-Magnetic driven motor-Energy efficient-UL and ULC approved-Flow control to regulate the out-put of water-Distressed: No. Dimensions: -Overall Height - Top to Bottom: 2.5-Overall Width - Side to Side: 1.75-Overall Depth - Front to. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Koolatron

1/4 HP Smart Geyser Submersible Utility Pump
 

1/4 HP Smart Geyser Submersible Utility Pump

$159.99  $139.95

Features: -Includes garden hose adapter-Submersible utility pump-Automatic on and off-Corrosion resistant body-Engine HP: Less than 1/3-Plastic construction-Made in the USA-Product Type: Utility Pump-Distressed: No-Material: Plastic -Material. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Simer

Sump Pump Check Valve
 

Sump Pump Check Valve

$31.77  $18.95

Features: -Check valve-Prevents water in discharge line from draining back in sump when pump is not running-Flapper type valve requires minimal unseat pressure-May be plumbed with accordion sump discharge hose, polyethylene PVC, or galvanized pipe. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Pentair

55 GPM Semi-Vortex Submersible Trash Pump with Agitator
 

55 GPM Semi-Vortex Submersible Trash Pump with Agitator

$640.00  $544.00

Tsurumi water pumps beefed up version of the HS2 model, this water pump offers both power and compact design. Ideal for pumping sand, solids, and debris with minimal wear and clogging. This water pump is reliable and worry free with its strong lasting. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Tsurumi

20000 PSI Pneumatic Hydrostatic Test Pump
 

20000 PSI Pneumatic Hydrostatic Test Pump

$7,300.00  $5,508.14

Features: -Made in the USA-Product Type: Test Pump-Finish: Red-Distressed: No-Powder Coated Finish: Yes-Number of Items Included: 1-Pieces Included: -Control Box Required: No -Control Box Included: -Hose Included: Yes-Castors Included: No -Nu. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Rice Hydro

360 GPM Honda Engine Driven Trash Pump with Low Oil Sensor
 

360 GPM Honda Engine Driven Trash Pump with Low Oil Sensor

$1,854.00  $1,706.77

Whether it be at a construction site or in a commercial setting this water pump provides both the power and durability to get the job done. This Tsurumi pump combines both reliability thanks to its quality parts and performance with the help of the Hon. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Tsurumi

8 HP Honda Engine Driven Centrifugal Pump with Low Oil Sensor
 

8 HP Honda Engine Driven Centrifugal Pump with Low Oil Sensor

$1,769.00  $1,504.00

For maximum utility at an affordable price, this Honda engine driven water pump by Tsurumi offers both power and durability.A unique addition to the Tsurumi line this pump provides extra power while maintaining the same level of quality. Both lightwei. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Tsurumi

Fountain Jet Pumps GPH: 172 GPH
 

Fountain Jet Pumps GPH: 172 GPH

$30.66  $29.76

Features: -Pump-Magnetic driven motor-Energy efficient-UL and ULC approved-Flow control to regulate the out-put of water-Distressed: No. Dimensions: -Overall Height - Top to Bottom: 2.5-Overall Width - Side to Side: 1.75-Overall Depth - Front to. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Koolatron

3/4 HP Corrosion Resistant Convertible Jet Pump
 

3/4 HP Corrosion Resistant Convertible Jet Pump

$439.51  $249.95

Features: -Pressure gauge is included-Jet pump-Can be used in shallow or deep well installation in 2" wells or larger-Ideal for shallow well applications with pumping levels to 25', and for deep well applications with pumping levels to 110'-High re. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Flotec

76.67 GPM Submersible Pump
 

76.67 GPM Submersible Pump

$515.04  $504.08

Features: -The built-in thermal protector turns off the power supply in case of overload, therefore protecting the motor-Product Type: Utility Pump-Distressed: No-Material Casing: Aluminum -Material Casing Details: -Number of Items Included: 1-Pi. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Subaru

550 PSI Triple Diaphragm Hydrostatic Test Water Pump with 5.5 HP Honda Engine
 

550 PSI Triple Diaphragm Hydrostatic Test Water Pump with 5.5 HP Honda Engine

$4,875.50  $2,699.99

This pump is recognized as the most saught-after large volume hydrostatic test pump on the market. Features: -Water pump-Inlet hose with stainless steel mesh filter-Made in the USA-Flow Rate: 11 GPM-Maximum Pressure: 550 PSI-Product Type: Test Pu. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Rice Hydro

30000 PSI Pneumatic Hydrostatic Test Pump
 

30000 PSI Pneumatic Hydrostatic Test Pump

$7,447.95  $7,447.72

Features: -Made in the USA-Product Type: Test Pump-Finish: Red-Distressed: No-Powder Coated Finish: Yes-Number of Items Included: 1-Pieces Included: -Control Box Required: No -Control Box Included: -Hose Included: Yes-Castors Included: No -Nu. [Read more]

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Brand: Rice Hydro

1/6 HP Tempest II Utility Submersible Pump
 

1/6 HP Tempest II Utility Submersible Pump

$81.09  $73.99

Features: -Submersible pump-Pumps 1248 gallons per hour-Use with ordinary garden hose or 1" pipe-For sump pumping or sump pump backup-For emptying pools and pool covers-For use with recirculating fountains-Runs in or under water-Pumps must be su. [Read more]

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Brand: Flotec

77 GPM Vertical Float Switch Cast-Iron Sump Pump
 

77 GPM Vertical Float Switch Cast-Iron Sump Pump

$191.93  $164.95

Features: -Cast-iron submersible sump pump-Vertical float switch for automatic operation-Top suction design filters debris and prevents clogging-Designed for easy installation without any plumbing changes-Stainless steel, high performance motor-Ea. [Read more]

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Brand: Wayne

93 GPH Statuary Pump
 

93 GPH Statuary Pump

$57.99

Features: -Fountain pump-Magnetic drive-Variable flow control-For submersible use-Grounded plug-Product Type: Fountain Pump-Distressed: No-Portable: Yes. Dimensions: -Overall Height - Top to Bottom: 7.5-Overall Width - Side to Side: 4.25-Overal. [Read more]

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Brand: Danner

0.4 HP Sewer Pump System
 

0.4 HP Sewer Pump System

$566.80  $379.99

Features: -Sewer pump system-Durable thermoplastic construction-Ideal for basement installations, pumping below-grade toilets and laundry facilities-Maximum pumping capacities up to 5250 GPH-Corrosion resistant construction with multi-vane, non clo. [Read more]

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Brand: Flotec

5 GPM Hydrostatic Test Water Pump
 

5 GPM Hydrostatic Test Water Pump

$3,381.40  $2,223.42

This mid volume, low pressure hydrostatic pump is designed for testing lines of smaller diameter. The RP-3C is a must-have for plumbing and landscape contractors. This hydrostatic pump includes a polypropylene roller pump for exceptionally smooth test. [Read more]

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Brand: Rice Hydro

2" Trash Pump Float Switch: No Float Switch, Voltage: 110 Volts
 

2" Trash Pump Float Switch: No Float Switch, Voltage: 110 Volts

$315.00  $273.00

This durable trash pump is powerful enough to get the job done and compact enough to use in almost any setting whether it be at home, in the office, or at a construction site. With reliable and innovative materials this water pump from Tsurumi is sure. [Read more]

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Brand: Tsurumi

137 GPM Honda Engine Driven Centrifugal Pump with Low Oil Sensor
 

137 GPM Honda Engine Driven Centrifugal Pump with Low Oil Sensor

$613.00  $521.00

Combining the power of a Honda engine and the durability that has come to personify Tsurumi pumps, this water pump is ideal for any situation. Both lightweight and powerful it can be used in almost environment and provides an affordable and efficient. [Read more]

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Brand: Tsurumi

3 GPM Low Volume High Pressure Electric Hydrostatic Test Pump
 

3 GPM Low Volume High Pressure Electric Hydrostatic Test Pump

$1,451.16  $888.19

This electric pump is designed for testing sprinkler systems, irrigation lines, pressure vessels, plant process piping, and small diameter water lines. It features a triplex ceramic plunger with oil bath for long life with minimal maintenance. Hydrosta. [Read more]

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Brand: Rice Hydro

1 HP Semi-Vortex Submerisble Trash Pump with Agitator
 

1 HP Semi-Vortex Submerisble Trash Pump with Agitator

$545.00  $479.25

This durable trash pump is powerful enough to get the job done and compact enough to use in almost any setting whether it be at home, in the office, or at a construction site. Combining both reliable materials as well as innovative technology this Tsu. [Read more]

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Brand: Tsurumi

1/3 HP Tether Float Switch Cast-Iron Submersible Effluent Pump
 

1/3 HP Tether Float Switch Cast-Iron Submersible Effluent Pump

$167.48  $134.99

Features: -Cast-iron submersible effluent pump-Piggy-back tether float switch for automatic or manual operation-Capable of handling 0.75-inch solids-Designed for easy installation without any plumbing changes-Stainless steel ring for portability-U. [Read more]

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Brand: Wayne

260 GPH Danner Statuary Pump in Clamshell with 18' Cord
 

260 GPH Danner Statuary Pump in Clamshell with 18' Cord

$93.99  $73.99

Features: -Statuary pump in clamshell with cord-260 gallons per hour pump-Allows it to fit into statue bases-Not clog-Adjustable flow control-Seven foot shut off and an 216" long cord-Grounded power cord-Made in the USA-Product Type: Fountain P. [Read more]

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Brand: E G Danner

Saniswift Water Pump
 

Saniswift Water Pump

$273.00  $232.05

Features: -Water pump-The Saniswift is a gray water pump that is ideally suitable for use in a basement apartment or anywhere in the house where additional fixtures are most wanted-Saniswift's modern style prevails over other bulky gray water pumps. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Saniflo

2550GPH Skimmer Pump 138" Shut Off
 

2550GPH Skimmer Pump 138" Shut Off

$300.99  $164.95

The Proline Skimmer pump with Hy-Drive technology is a continuous duty pump designed for use inside a pond skimmer to move large volumes of water silently and efficiently through filtration systems, a waterfall, stream or fountain. It's compact size a. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Danner

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Figura 8. Medición correcta de la elevación estática con respecto a la operación de la bomba. La elevación estática se mide desde la superficie del suministro de agua al punto central de la abertura de entrada de la bomba.

Hidrostática

La rama de la hidráulica que trata con la presión y el equilibrio del agua (en reposo) y otros líquidos es conocida como hidrostática. El agua es el líquido considerado con mas frecuencia en el estudio de los principios básicos de la hidráulica, pero otros líquidos están también incluidos.

Altura de carga estática

La altura por encima de un punto dado de una columna o cuerpo de agua en reposo (el peso de del agua que causa la presión) se denomina altura de carga estática o presión estática (static head en Inglés).

Con respecto a la operación de la bomba, la altura de carga se mide desde el punto central de la conexión de salida de la bomba (vea la Figura 7).

En la mayoría de los cálculos, es una práctica común estimar la presión por pie de la altura de carga en 0,5 psi. El valor correcto para el cálculo de la presión de agua por pie de altura de carga estática es 0,43302 psi. Este valor es preciso para una temperatura del agua a 62 ºF.

Elevación estática

La altura a la que la presión atmosférica hace que una columna de agua se eleve por encima de la fuente de suministro para restaurar el equilibrio se denomina elevación estática (vea la Figura 8). El peso de la columna de agua (1 pulgada cuadrada de área de sección transversal) requerida para restaurar el equilibrio es igual a la presión ejercida por la atmósfera (psi).

La presión de la atmósfera puede estar disponible para levantar agua desde la fuente de suministro a una bomba de elevada mediante la eliminación del aire de la entrada de la bomba (véase la figura 9). En el diagrama de la izquierda, el tubo de entrada (antes de la conexión con la bomba) presiona hacia abajo sobre la superficie del agua con la misma presión (psi) tanto por dentro como fuera de la cañería, debido a que el tubo está abierto en la parte superior.

Figura 9.  Método para hacer que la presión atmosférica esté disponible para la elevación de agua desde la fuente hasta una bomba de elevada.

Si el extremo de la tubería está conectado a una bomba que extrae el aire de la tubería para crear un vacío parcial, el agua sube a una altura A (véase figura 9) que está determinada por la presión atmosférica disponible.

Cuando el barómetro indica 30 pulgadas (76,20 centímetros) de mercurio a nivel del mar, la presión atmosférica a nivel del mar es de 14,74 psi, que es la presión atmosférica  que puede mantener o equilibrar una columna de 34,042 pies (1.037,60 centímetros) de agua, si la columna está totalmente desprovista de aire y la temperatura del agua es de 62 ºF (16,67 ºC). Por lo tanto, la presión atmosférica eleva el agua a una altura que establece el equilibrio entre el peso del agua y la presión de la atmósfera.

Cuando la temperatura del agua esta más caliente que 62 ºF (16,67 ºC), la altura a la que el agua puede ser levantada disminuye debido a la mayor presión de vapor. Una bomba de alimentación de caldera tomando agua a 153 ºF (67,22 ºC), por ejemplo, no puede producir un vacío superior a 21,78 pulgadas  (55,32 centímetros), porque el agua comienza a hervir en ese punto y llena la cámara de la bomba con vapor. Por lo tanto, la elevación teórica es:

El resultado es aproximado ya que no se hace corrección para la columna de agua de 34 pies (10,36 metros) a 62 ºF  (16,67 ºC). En 153 ºF (67,22 ºC), por supuesto, la longitud de la columna se incrementa ligeramente.

Figura 10. La elevación máxima de agua a la temperatura estándar (62 ◦ F) cuando la presión barométrica es de 30 pulgadas (izquierda) y 24 pulgadas (derecha).

La altura máxima a la que el agua a temperatura estándar (62 ºF  ó 16,67 ºC) puede ser levantada se determina por la presión barométrica. Como se muestra en la figura 10, el agua se eleva a una altura de 34,1 pies  (1.039,37 centímetros) cuando la presión barométrica es de 30 pulgadas  (76,20 centímetros), y se eleva a 27,28 pies (831,49 centímetros) cuando la presión barométrica es de 24 pulgadas (60,96 centímetros) (utilizando 0,49116 psi  y 2,30947 pies ó 70,39 centímetros a la cabeza del agua para cada psi).

Temas relacionados : Neumática e Hidráulica

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