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Principios de Hidráulica

Hidráulica : Descripción funcional de las bombas hidráulicas.

Una comprensión de la es necesaria antes de que los principios básicos de los diversos tipos de bombas puedan ser entendidos. La hidráulica es la rama de la física que se ocupa de las propiedades mecánicas del agua y otros líquidos, y con la aplicación de estas propiedades en la ingeniería.

Mientras la hidráulica entró en prominencia en el último medio siglo, no es una ciencia nueva. Blaise Pascal, un científico francés en el siglo XVII, desarrolló la ley fundamental de la ciencia de la hidráulica.

Pero la incapacidad para producir materiales de sellado satisfactorios, acabados mecanizados, y piezas mecanizadas limitó el crecimiento de la hidráulica antes de la primera parte del siglo XX.

Principios básicos

Como se explica en otras páginas, el agua es una sustancia verdaderamente notable. En su máxima densidad (39,1 ºF), el agua se expande cuando se aplica calor. También se expande ligeramente cuando la temperatura disminuye desde ese punto. Bajo la influencia de la temperatura y la presión, el agua puede existir como un sólido (hielo), un líquido (agua), y un gas (vapor).

La presión ejercida por un líquido sobre una superficie es proporcional al área de la superficie. La figura 1 muestra el principio hidráulico. Dos cilindros de diferentes diámetros están unidos por un tubo y se llenan de agua. Si el área M del pistón más grande, por ejemplo, es 30 veces el área de la superficie S de pistón más pequeño, y un peso de 2 libras es colocado en el pistón más pequeño, la presión se transmite al agua y al pistón más grande. Esa presión es igual a 2 libras por cada porción de la superficie del pistón más grande, que es igual en área a la suma del área de la superficie del pistón más pequeño. El pistón más grande está expuesto a una presión hacia arriba igual a 30 veces la del pistón más pequeño, o sea 60 libras. Además, si un peso 60-libras se coloca en el pistón mayor, los dos pistones permanecen en equilibrio. Este equilibrio es destruido en caso de que un mayor o un menor peso sea aplicado.

Una pequeña cantidad de agua logra equilibrar un peso mucho mayor. Como se muestra en la Figura 2, una locomotora que pesa 101.790 libras puede ser equilibrada en un elevador hidráulico contra una cantidad menor de agua, suponiendo que no hay fugas ni fricción, y que el tubo vertical que conduce al cilindro de émbolo sea excesivamente pequeño en diámetro. Por ejemplo, si el área del émbolo requiere 100 psi de presión en el émbolo para equilibrar la locomotora 101.790 libras, la carga es equilibrada cuando el tubo sea llenado de agua hasta una altura de 231 pies (100 x 2,31).

Figura 1. El principio hidráulico de que la presión ejercida por un líquido sobre una superficie es proporcional al área de la superficie.

Figura 2 El principio de que una menor cantidad de agua puede ser usada para equilibrar un peso mucho mayor.

La presión en cualquier parte de un fluido que tiene una densidad uniforme es proporcional a su profundidad por debajo de la superficie (véase la figura 3). Como se ilustra en la Figura 4, una pesa de 1 libra colocada sobre una escala, totaliza 11 libras, lo que da un peso total o  presión de 11 psi si se ubica sobre una pulgada cuadrada de superficie. Del mismo modo, una columna de agua de 1 pulgada cuadrada de sección transversal y 2,31 pies de altura pesa 1 libra (vea la Figura 4). Un manómetro colocado en la parte inferior de la columna  que sea de 4,62 pies (2,31 x 2), de altura indica una presión de 2 psi. Por lo tanto, la presión de agua a cualquier profundidad es igual a:

 

Figura 3. El principio de que la presión en cualquier porción de un líquido que tenga densidad uniforme es proporcional a su profundidad por debajo de la superficie.

Figura 4. El principio de que la presión de agua en cualquier punto por debajo la superficie es proporcional a la profundidad del punto debajo de la superficie. Se ilustra la presión en psi (izquierda), y se muestra la relación entre la presión del agua en cualquier punto por debajo de la superficie y la profundidad en pies (derecha).

Figura 5. Los fluidos suben hasta el mismo nivel en cada brazo de un tubo en U cuando la temperatura del líquido es la misma en cada brazo (izquierda), y se elevan a niveles diferentes cuando la temperatura es diferente en cada brazo (derecha).

Como se muestra en la Figura 5, los fluidos se elevan hasta el mismo nivel en cada brazo de un tubo en U cuando la temperatura del líquido es la misma en cada brazo. Sin embargo, los fluidos se elevan a niveles diferentes cuando la temperatura es diferente en cada brazo (derecha).

Las consideraciones principales en hidráulica son altura de carga y la elevación. La altura de carga es la profundidad del agua en un recipiente, tubería o conducto, que es una medida de la presión en cualquier punto debajo de la superficie. El término altura de carga (head en Inglés) indica la diferencia en el nivel de agua entre dos puntos. Por lo general se expresa en pies. Los dos tipos de alturas de carga son carga estática y carga dinámica (véase la Figura 6).

En la elevación, o altura de alzamiento, es la altura a la que la presión atmosférica fuerza o eleva al agua por encima de la elevación de su fuente de suministro. Con respecto a la operación de la bomba, la altura, medida desde la elevación de la fuente de suministro hasta el punto central de la abertura de entrada de la bomba se denomina elevación (véase la Figura 7 y Figura 8). Los dos tipos de elevación son elevación estática y elevación dinámica.

Figura 6. Altura de carga dinámica y estática.

Figura 7. Puntos correctos de medición de altura de carga y elevación.

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35 GPH Magnetic Drive Utility Pump

35 GPH Magnetic Drive Utility Pump

$19.99  $17.98

Features: -Pond pump-Ideal replacement pump-Energy efficient-No maintenance, only one moving part-Completely submersible-No motor seals to wear-Fish safe, not oil filled, can't leak-35 GPH maximum flow-1 Year limited warranty-Made in the USA. [Read more]

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12V Thermoplastic Battery Back-Up Sump Pump System

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$313.25  $248.00

Features: -Battery back-up sump pump system-Reliable reed float switch for automatic operation-Alarm lets homeowner know back-up system is active-Designed for easy installation without any major plumbing changes-Battery charger keeps battery proper. [Read more]

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PumpPro 4,755 GHP High Pressure Water Pump with Recoil Start

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$599.00  $387.86

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6.5 HP Water Pump

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$397.99  $279.00

Features: -Overhead valve engine, recoil start-Economy centrifugal, self priming pump-3 Hours run time per tank of fuel-Maximum PSI: 45-Discharge capacity: 264 gal / min-Fuel tank capacity: 1.6 Gallons-Includes an inlet strainer, hose clamps, hos. [Read more]

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3/4 HP Cast-Iron Shallow Well Jet Pump

3/4 HP Cast-Iron Shallow Well Jet Pump

$283.33  $237.62

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3,250 GPH VersiFlo Horizontal Pump

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$2,318.21

Matala Versiflow Pumps are a high quality, reliable, industrial-grade, submersible waterfall pump. Their versatile design makes them an excellent choice for heavy and continuous flow duty in water garden skimmers and pump vaults. The pump can be laid. [Read more]

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3.5 GPM Pneumatic Hydrostatic Test Pump

3.5 GPM Pneumatic Hydrostatic Test Pump

$4,320.00  $3,129.50

Features: -3.5 GPM up to 2000 PSI-Made in the USA-Product Type: Test Pump-Finish: Red-Distressed: No-Powder Coated Finish: Yes-Number of Items Included: 1-Pieces Included: -Control Box Required: No -Control Box Included: -Hose Included: Yes. [Read more]

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1/4 HP Smart Geyser Submersible Utility Pump

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$159.99  $134.21

Features: -Submersible utility pump-Automatic on and off-Corrosion resistant body-Engine HP: Less than 1/3-Includes garden hose adapter-Plastic construction-Made in the USA-Product Type: Utility Pump-Distressed: No-Material: Plastic -Material. [Read more]

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3/4 HP, 3-Wire Stainless Steel Deep Well Submersible Pump

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$433.33  $341.08

Features: -Deep well submersible pump-Material: Stainless steel-For wells 20 to 175 feet in depth-High efficiency, hermetically sealed motor for long life-Motor enclosure, pump shell and fasteners-Requires control box (not included)-Engine HP: 3/. [Read more]

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270 GPM Electric Submersible Clean Water Pump with Three-Phase Motors

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$3,128.19  $2,630.46

Features: -Electric Submersible Clean Water Pump with Three-Phase Motors-Multiquip's electric submersible pumps are the perfect tool for a wide range of dewatering applications-Mechanical seal within an oil filled chamber for positive lubrication-Re. [Read more]

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GPH 2300 Waterfall Pump

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$186.72  $137.00

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Water Pump

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$351.00  $244.00

Lightweight water pump with the power need. Features: -Water pump-General purpose pump-Cast iron impeller-Lightweight aluminum pump housing-Silicone carbide mechanical seal-17.6" H x 14.57" W x 19.84" D, 58.5 lbs-Includes 3" diameter hose system. [Read more]

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PumpPro 17,440 GHP Trash Water Pump

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$899.00  $807.11

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2" Trash Pump - Honda GX160

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$1,212.92  $1,125.00

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1 HP Submersible & Portable Dewatering Pump Voltage: 115V

1 HP Submersible & Portable Dewatering Pump Voltage: 115V

$587.00  $509.00

Its lightweight and compact design give it a sleek yet functioning characteristic that combines both power and durability with the materials used by Tsurumi. This is an ideal portable water pump for almost any situation on the residential or commercia. [Read more]

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10000 PSI Pneumatic Hydrostatic Test Pump

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$5,169.77  $2,754.60

A versatile and compact test pump can operate from 300 to 10,000 PSI, and is designed for testing in small confined spaces or remote locations. Lightweight at only 42 lbs, this unit is easy to maneuver between test sites. Manufactured with the quality. [Read more]

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190 GPM Honda Engine Driven Trash Pump with Low Oil Sensor

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$1,447.00  $1,230.00

This Honda driven trash pump provides both the power and durability necessary to handle almost any situation. With strong and innovative design and materials this water pump provides a reliable solution to your excess liquids. Both lighweight as well a. [Read more]

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3/4 HP Cast Iron Professional Series Sewage Pump

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$377.30  $312.00

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$86.37  $78.50

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190 GPH Danner PMK190 Pump and Filter with Bonus Fountain Head

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4500 GPH Max Flo 16000 Waterfall Pump

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73 GPM Electric Submersible Clean Water Pump with Single-Phase Motors

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42 GPM Water Transfer Pump

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$219.38  $182.00

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Water Pump

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Lightweight water pump with the power need. Features: -Water pump-General purpose pump-Cast iron impeller-Silicone carbide mechanical seal-Engine-damaging dirt outside of the engine and in the garden-15.39" H x 18.31" W x 14.57" D, 56.5 lbs-Incl. [Read more]

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4 HP Honda Gasoline-Powered Transfer Utility Pump

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1/2 HP Tether Float Switch Sewage Pump

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$168.88  $146.00

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Recirculating Water and Air Pump

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$87.99  $68.50

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1/3 HP Pedestal Sump Pump

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$91.70  $83.00

Features: -Sump pump-Pumps 3600 gallons per hour-8' Grounded cord and 3 prong plug-Top screened inlet with 1.25" discharge-Non-clogging impeller-UL approved-Corrosion resistant plastic construction-Rugged cast iron construction-Heavy-duty, rugg. [Read more]

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3-Wire Submersible Well Pump

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$680.84  $335.00

Features: -Sump pump-For average yield wells with average household use-All 1.25" NPT-Can pump to depths of 500'-14 Gallons per minute capacity-Requires control box-Stainless steel pump shaft is precision ground for exact bearing fit and straight. [Read more]

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4 GPM High Pressure Hydrostatic Test Pump

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$5,037.21  $2,862.47

A large volume, high pressure hydrostatic pump. This model is designed for testing boilers, vessels, process piping, steam and gas lines. The ceramic plunger pump has an inner oil bath ensuring long life and increased stability. High flow mechanism qui. [Read more]

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106 GPM Honda GX - 160 High Pressure Pump

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$2,384.00  $1,007.00

Features: -106 GPM Honda GX - 160 High Pressure Pump-Helped pioneer the small portable high pressure pump-True one-person operation for high-head applications and for portable fire fighting-Use also for temporary pressure for new fire sprinkler syst. [Read more]

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2" Trash Pump Float Switch: No Float Switch, Voltage: 110 Volts

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$315.00  $273.00

This durable trash pump is powerful enough to get the job done and compact enough to use in almost any setting whether it be at home, in the office, or at a construction site. With reliable and innovative materials this water pump from Tsurumi is sure. [Read more]

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300 PSI Hydrostatic Test Water Pump with 5.0 HP Briggs and Stratton Engine

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$4,405.28  $2,011.61

Features: -Water pump-Automatic pressure regulator with inlet bypass-Made in the USA-Output flow: 5 GPM-Maximum Pressure: 300 PSI-Product Type: Test Pump-Finish: Red-Distressed: No-Powder Coated Finish: Yes-Number of Items Included: 1-Pieces. [Read more]

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238 GPM Semi-Trash Pump with Honda Engine

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$708.00

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300 PSI Hydrostatic Test Water Pump with 5.0 HP Honda Engine

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$4,606.81  $2,221.01

Features: -Water pump-Automatic pressure regulator with inlet bypass-Made in the USA-Output flow: 5 GPM-Maximum Pressure: 300 PSI-Heavy gauge steel roll cage-Product Type: Test Pump-Finish: Red-Distressed: No-Powder Coated Finish: Yes-Number. [Read more]

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1600 GMP Deutz F4L913 Trash Pump

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$23,510.00

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25 GPM Submersible Pump

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$470.00  $451.53

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79 GPM Submersible Trash Pumps with Single Phase Motor

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$830.00  $345.08

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115V Comfort Recirculator Pump Kit

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$512.00  $291.27

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Emergency Battery Back Up Sump Pump System

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$444.99  $257.00

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75 GPH Magnetic Drive Electric Submersible Pump with 6 ft. Cable

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$34.78  $21.07

For use with fountains, statuary, small ponds and water sprays, this energy efficient electric pump is ideal for freshwater and pond use. Powerful, quiet and reliable with an adjustable flow rate of 35 - 75 gallons/hr. Features: -Submersible pump-For. [Read more]

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92 GPM Submersible Pump

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$727.00  $711.68

Features: -The built-in thermal protector turns off the power supply in case of overload, therefore protecting the motor-Product Type: Utility Pump-Distressed: No-Material Casing: Aluminum -Material Casing Details: -Number of Items Included: 1-Pi. [Read more]

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1.5 GPM Low Volume High Pressure Electric Hydrostatic Test Pump

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$3,048.84  $1,661.17

This electric pump is designed for testing sprinkler systems, irrigation lines, pressure vessels, plant process piping, and small diameter water lines. It features a triplex ceramic plunger with oil bath for long life with minimal maintenance. Hydrosta. [Read more]

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Gulp UltraMax Water Removal Siphon Pump

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$34.99  $26.24

Features: -Hand pump-Made from non-corrosion materials-Can remove 8 gallons of water per minute (about 5 strokes)-Self-priming-Contour grip handle-Perfect for boaters-Gulp collection-Collection: Gulp-Product Type: Hand Pump-Distressed: No-Swi. [Read more]

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Hydraulic Shoring Pump with Pneumatic

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Lightweight and easy to maneuver, this gas powered hydraulic shoring pressure pump is capable of pressures up to 2,000 PSI, and includes a bypass relief. Features: -Gas powered hydraulic shoring pump-Compact vertical design-Bypass relief-Max PSI: 2. [Read more]

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1/6 HP Tempest II Utility Submersible Pump

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$81.09  $72.50

Features: -Submersible pump-Pumps 1248 gallons per hour-Use with ordinary garden hose or 1" pipe-For sump pumping or sump pump backup-For emptying pools and pool covers-For use with recirculating fountains-Runs in or under water-Pumps must be su. [Read more]

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120V Electric Water Pump for MK-370 and MK-470

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$58.50

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450 PSI Hydrostatic Test Water Pump with 5.5 HP Honda Engine

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$4,942.68  $2,605.53

Features: -Automatic pressure regulator with inlet bypass-Pump: Twin-piston, positive displacement with cast iron housing and cylinder head-Flow Rate: 6 GPM-Product Type: Test Pump-Finish: Red-Distressed: No-Powder Coated Finish: Yes-Material: C. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Rice Hydro

1083 GMP Deutz F2L2011 Trash Pump

1083 GMP Deutz F2L2011 Trash Pump

$17,628.19  $17,172.37

Features: -1083 GMP Deutz F2L2011 Trash Pump-Multiquip has been manufacturing top quality dewatering pumps for two decades-Is a solid performer for larger dewatering projects-This is the skid-mount version located in the skid-Low oil shutdown-Not. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Multiquip

1/2 HP Submersible Non-Clogging Vortex Utility Pump

1/2 HP Submersible Non-Clogging Vortex Utility Pump

$104.23  $78.50

Features: -Non-clogging reinforced thermoplastic submersible utility pump-Corrosion-resistant reinforced thermoplastic housing, volute and impeller-Bottom suction design filters debris and removes water down to a quarter inch of surface-Passes up to. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Wayne

1/3 HP Automatic Submersible Effluent Pump

1/3 HP Automatic Submersible Effluent Pump

$299.99  $189.00

Features: -Effluent pump-Engine HP: 1/3-Plastic construction-Ideal for basement installations, laundry facilities, underground parking, grain storage and construction sites-Made in the USA-Product Type: Effluent or Sewage Pump-Distressed: No-Mat. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Flotec

63 GPM Vertical Float Switch Cast-Iron Sump Pump

63 GPM Vertical Float Switch Cast-Iron Sump Pump

$155.38  $133.00

Features: -Cast-iron submersible sump pump-Vertical float switch for automatic operation-Top suction design filters debris and prevents clogging-Designed for easy installation without any plumbing changes-Epoxy-coated steel, high performance motor. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Wayne

Computer Controlled A/C - D/C Battery Backup Sump Pump System

Computer Controlled A/C - D/C Battery Backup Sump Pump System

$549.00  $518.92

Features: -Pump system-Material: Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene-Fits next to the main AC pump and automatically begins pumping during a power outage, when the main pump fails, or when water flow exceeds the capacity of the main pump-State-of-the-ar. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Basement Watchdog

1/2 HP Thermoplastic Pedestal Pump

1/2 HP Thermoplastic Pedestal Pump

$179.45  $133.00

Features: -Thermoplastic pedestal pump-Adjustable vertical float switch allows for easy changes in operating cycle to fit application-Top suction design filters debris and prevents clogging-Designed for easy installation without any plumbing changes. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Wayne

60 GPM Electric Submersible Clean Water Pump with Single-Phase Motors

60 GPM Electric Submersible Clean Water Pump with Single-Phase Motors

$1,010.00  $462.00

Features: -Electric Submersible Clean Water Pump with Single-Phase Motors-Most submersible pumps will leave 1-2" of water as a minimum draw-Can be impractical when faced with a large surface area to pump out-Automatic thermo overload protection-Ha. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Multiquip

211 GPM 3" Trash/Water Pump with 6.5 HP Engine

211 GPM 3" Trash/Water Pump with 6.5 HP Engine

$459.99  $276.44

This trash/water pump is capable of de-watering up to 12,660 gallons per hour. Dependable and quiet, the TWP365 can be easily transported weighing only 64 lbs. A great product for the price, this trash/water pump can bail you out when you need it most. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Buffalo Tools

1 HP Semi-Vortex Submerisble Trash Pump with Agitator and Float Switch

1 HP Semi-Vortex Submerisble Trash Pump with Agitator and Float Switch

$545.00  $479.25

A slightly larger and more powerful version of the HS model, this durable trash pump is powerful enough to get the job done and compact enough to use in almost any setting whether it be at home, in the office, or at a construction site. Combining both. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Tsurumi

178 GPH Nova Fountain Pump

178 GPH Nova Fountain Pump

$34.99  $24.60

Features: -Submersible, low-wattage pumps-Ideal for fountains, statues, splitters, and small water-178 GPH -Magnet driven motor-Silent operation-Suction cups on base-Max head: 57.6"-Tubing size: 1/2"-Includes flow-adjustment knob on its side. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: algreen

65 GPH Power Head TT Pump

65 GPH Power Head TT Pump

$41.50

The Power Head pumps feature flow control, an oil free magnetic design, are epoxy protected and have ceramic impeller shafts for long life. These reliable and quiet submersible water pumps will give you a cost-saving, energy-efficient operation. Featu. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Alpine

6 1/2" Siphon Pump

6 1/2" Siphon Pump

$14.72  $11.12

Features: -Hand pump-Gas and oil resistant-Carded-Heavy-duty construction-Product Type: Hand Pump-Distressed: No-Power Source: Gas. Dimensions: -Overall Height - Top to Bottom: 9.5-Overall Width - Side to Side: 5.5-Overall Depth - Front to Back:. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Custom Accessories

1500 PSI Manual Hydrostatic Hand Test Pump

1500 PSI Manual Hydrostatic Hand Test Pump

$243.08

Designed for testing small diameter water lines, in areas such as landscaping, plumbing, and residential. Unique dual check-valve system reduces water bleed-back and user fatigue. Features: -Shut off valve, and rubber grip handle-Less user fatigue, s. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Rice Hydro

65 GPH Magnetic-Drive Mini Pump

65 GPH Magnetic-Drive Mini Pump

$28.99  $21.40

Features: -Pond pump-Made to run continuously, without seals to wear out-Being filled with epoxy, not oil, they cannot leak into the pond-Suitable for table top fountains-Built in adjustable flow control-UL listed to US and Canadian safety standar. [Read more]

Store: Wayfair

Brand: Danner

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Figura 8. Medición correcta de la elevación estática con respecto a la operación de la bomba. La elevación estática se mide desde la superficie del suministro de agua al punto central de la abertura de entrada de la bomba.

Hidrostática

La rama de la hidráulica que trata con la presión y el equilibrio del agua (en reposo) y otros líquidos es conocida como hidrostática. El agua es el líquido considerado con mas frecuencia en el estudio de los principios básicos de la hidráulica, pero otros líquidos están también incluidos.

Altura de carga estática

La altura por encima de un punto dado de una columna o cuerpo de agua en reposo (el peso de del agua que causa la presión) se denomina altura de carga estática o presión estática (static head en Inglés).

Con respecto a la operación de la bomba, la altura de carga se mide desde el punto central de la conexión de salida de la bomba (vea la Figura 7).

En la mayoría de los cálculos, es una práctica común estimar la presión por pie de la altura de carga en 0,5 psi. El valor correcto para el cálculo de la presión de agua por pie de altura de carga estática es 0,43302 psi. Este valor es preciso para una temperatura del agua a 62 ºF.

Elevación estática

La altura a la que la presión atmosférica hace que una columna de agua se eleve por encima de la fuente de suministro para restaurar el equilibrio se denomina elevación estática (vea la Figura 8). El peso de la columna de agua (1 pulgada cuadrada de área de sección transversal) requerida para restaurar el equilibrio es igual a la presión ejercida por la atmósfera (psi).

La presión de la atmósfera puede estar disponible para levantar agua desde la fuente de suministro a una bomba de elevada mediante la eliminación del aire de la entrada de la bomba (véase la figura 9). En el diagrama de la izquierda, el tubo de entrada (antes de la conexión con la bomba) presiona hacia abajo sobre la superficie del agua con la misma presión (psi) tanto por dentro como fuera de la cañería, debido a que el tubo está abierto en la parte superior.

Figura 9.  Método para hacer que la presión atmosférica esté disponible para la elevación de agua desde la fuente hasta una bomba de elevada.

Si el extremo de la tubería está conectado a una bomba que extrae el aire de la tubería para crear un vacío parcial, el agua sube a una altura A (véase figura 9) que está determinada por la presión atmosférica disponible.

Cuando el barómetro indica 30 pulgadas (76,20 centímetros) de mercurio a nivel del mar, la presión atmosférica a nivel del mar es de 14,74 psi, que es la presión atmosférica  que puede mantener o equilibrar una columna de 34,042 pies (1.037,60 centímetros) de agua, si la columna está totalmente desprovista de aire y la temperatura del agua es de 62 ºF (16,67 ºC). Por lo tanto, la presión atmosférica eleva el agua a una altura que establece el equilibrio entre el peso del agua y la presión de la atmósfera.

Cuando la temperatura del agua esta más caliente que 62 ºF (16,67 ºC), la altura a la que el agua puede ser levantada disminuye debido a la mayor presión de vapor. Una bomba de alimentación de caldera tomando agua a 153 ºF (67,22 ºC), por ejemplo, no puede producir un vacío superior a 21,78 pulgadas  (55,32 centímetros), porque el agua comienza a hervir en ese punto y llena la cámara de la bomba con vapor. Por lo tanto, la elevación teórica es:

El resultado es aproximado ya que no se hace corrección para la columna de agua de 34 pies (10,36 metros) a 62 ºF  (16,67 ºC). En 153 ºF (67,22 ºC), por supuesto, la longitud de la columna se incrementa ligeramente.

Figura 10. La elevación máxima de agua a la temperatura estándar (62 ◦ F) cuando la presión barométrica es de 30 pulgadas (izquierda) y 24 pulgadas (derecha).

La altura máxima a la que el agua a temperatura estándar (62 ºF  ó 16,67 ºC) puede ser levantada se determina por la presión barométrica. Como se muestra en la figura 10, el agua se eleva a una altura de 34,1 pies  (1.039,37 centímetros) cuando la presión barométrica es de 30 pulgadas  (76,20 centímetros), y se eleva a 27,28 pies (831,49 centímetros) cuando la presión barométrica es de 24 pulgadas (60,96 centímetros) (utilizando 0,49116 psi  y 2,30947 pies ó 70,39 centímetros a la cabeza del agua para cada psi).

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